(c) The educated women realize the value of girls education and hence are prepared to give equal opportunities to their daughter when compared to less educated women. (d) Educated women inculcate better value among their children especially on health which in turn brings benefit to state.
(e) The total fertility rate, maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate came down with the higher levels of education of women. (f) Higher the earning potential because of higher the education. It is important determinant of health.
(g) Women may find easy entry into the formal sectors where working condition are better and wages are regular. (h) At the societal level the social benefit of women’s education perhaps outweigh the benefit occurring from men’s education. Since very few girls manage to complete the secondary education. So following measures are taken- (a) Free and compulsory primary education throughout India.
(b) Vocationalisation of education and technical training in different stream should form part of school curriculum. (c) Improving the quality of teaching and provision of facilities for important subjects like commerce, science and mathematics. (d) The provisions of common-room and separate facilities for girls in all schools. (e) The proportion of female teachers should be increased at all levels of school education especially in rural areas. (f) Schools should be located in places where they are few so that all children in the rural areas is within one kilometer. (g) Provision of mixed staff in all mixed school. This should be making a condition of recognition. (h) Adequate arrangement for co-curricular activities for schools in all schools.
(i) Introduction of job-oriented work experience, keep in view their needs. (j) Theater and media have a major role to play an important role in creating of education. (k) Higher education should be made accessible and cost-effective using the mass-media and distance education.
(l) Parents are important factor in determining a child school attendance. The survey conducted by UNICEF in 1999 revealed that 98% of parent thought that it was necessary for boys to receive primary education while it was 89% of parents thought it was necessary for girls to go to schools. (m) NGO’s try to (a) provide day care to young siblings so that elder daughters are relieved for attending schools, (b) encourage children to enroll in schools, (c) arranged for parents, teachers and school administration to come together and sort out problems and chalk out programmes for the future, (d) identify those who are not in school, (e) work for the integration of non-formal and formal education system so that children educated under the non-formal system get accepted by the formal system for further education, (f) work for alternate educational system for working children, (g) work for alternate educational system for working children, (h) development of more employment opportunities particularly of part time nature and development of the employment information and guidance services of women entering higher education, enable women to participate in useful activities. These efforts of Government of India in field of adult literacy since independence have been largely based on the policy of encouraging voluntary agencies to undertake task with supporting guidance and funds from the Government. The declared aims of these programmes are- (a) Imparting rudimentary literacy skills for self-fulfillment, social justice and self-emancipation, (b) Familiarizing the masses with the democratic process, (c) Activating large scale cooperation in the building up a welfare state. This programme of functional literacy for adult women is being formulated by the Department of Social Welfare.
Thus, the only institution which can counteract the effect of this process is educational system. It promote the equality for women, it make a deliberate, planned and sustained efforts so that the new value of equality of the sexes, can replaced the traditional value system of inequality. This educational system today has not even tried to undertake this responsibility. To make social reconstruction, development and nation building- all call for major changes in the social order and in this legislation played on important role and one of the important instruments. It makes efforts to usher in society where there will be inequality. There will no discrimination and complete liberty for women. It protects the interest of those who suffer from social and political disabilities by eliminating caste distinction, untouchability, apartheid etc. All the legislative trace of inequality should be removed and emphasized clearly on the principle of equality.
As Gandhij exhortation that “women should not suffer from any discrimination on any disability.” The legislation cannot by itself change the society. Public opinion has to be mounded to accept these rights. Apart legislation, executive and judiciary has also played an important role.
Executive branch of the government has seldom made an effort to set up the machinery to educate people about socio-economic change. Judiciary deals with rights of women to work. Legislature reflects the social values of a country the degree of women’s emancipation in any given society. These legislature, executive and judiciary work for the welfare of women. All India Women’s Conference was founded in 1926, also recognized as forum for voicing the problems and grievances of women, primarily have social objectives.
It works for social, economic and political rights for women. The most notable feature of activities was it reform for marriage and inheritance law. It basically works for welfare and relief of women and children.
This conference is merely a deliberative body using resolution as main method for pressurizing the government. The All India Conference work for development of institutional facilities for working and destitute women, equal pay for equal work for women, liberalizing the abortion law and family planning, anti-polygamy and divorce law. This All India Women Conference has same objectives to that of National Council of Women in India. These concerned with medical care, family planning, education. The empowerment of women and providing them equal opportunity in decision making process it is imperative to recognized the true nature of the social inequalities and disabilities that hampers them. This can be achieved by providing them with special opportunities for participation in the representative structures of local government. These can be done by provisions for reservation of seats for women and women representative in local self governing bodies, women participation in State Legislation, Women’s organisation and welfare workers particularly in rural areas. Apart of AIWC (All India Women Conference) and NCW (National Council of Women), Bharatiya Mahila Sangh was established for the welfare of rural women.
It work to improve their condition and also vocalize their aspiration through appropriate channel which merely act as the pressure group on the government, for removal of all women’s disabilities and promote local leadership among rural women through constructive programmes. Mahila Mandals have also organised in both rural and urban areas and it states is purely voluntary. These make interest in development activities for welfare of women.
It assist in planned rural development, deal with cottage industries, housing, agriculture. These mahila Mandals was established in 1955 for all women in border areas, farm areas, villages. In 1954, Federation of Indian Women was established to create social and political awareness of women and also make constructive programme including literacy. It also has been active in mobilizing women protest against all type of social evils and injustice. It fights for social justice and social transformation which can release from their present restricted position in society. They protect from exploitation of women workers and Harijan women.
They basically studying the problems of women and currently engaged in exploring opportunities for part-time employment. Panchayati Raj and community development ensures greater participation by women in the political process. They work for the management and administration of welfare and development schemes for women and children. The women participation in political leadership mandated by constitution. They will acquire “effective voice” and become a legislative force will it be possible for agendas for women in term of health, education, access, shelter and empowerment to be implemented.
The UN Secretary General Kofi Annan’s message on women day. Mr. Starcevic, Ms. Indira Jai Singh also achieving a global partnership for human rights. They work for promotion and protection of rights of both men and women. The role of the women’s movement in sphere of political participation is analyzed as necessary step to redefine the agenda of women’s empowerment.
Political participation mean democratization of various political processes and also linked with struggle for women empowerment. These political participation of women can be given a new direction and intervene in the processes of democracy and representative institution. The problem faced by women is engaging of large number of women in highly exploited sector. According to estimate by National Commission on self-employed women, 94 per cent of the total female work-force within highly exploited sector. This employment sector is characterized by low pay, low productivity, lack jobs security, low skill, and long hour of work. In absolute term, the female labour fore has grown from estimated 78.6 million to 99.
4 million. The majority of women are found in the vast rural and urban unorganized sectors. There is need Jo creates such union or bodies that could organised groups of migrant workers to press for enforcement of minimum work conditions like proper wages, medical facilities, maternity benefit, creches, incentives etc. The immediate task is that of ensuring them dignity and security at work and regulating work conditions through protective legislation and organizations. While analyzing the status of these groups of workers in framework of legislation, macro policies. They provide opportunities to seek alternate employment through skill training and education. National commission of women analysis on these sections of women worker comprising specific group such as women in the primary sector in mining, beady worker, handlooms, handicraft and domestic worker. These make recommendation on their protection and empowerment.
Presently, support structures, for employment such as mobilization of worker, legal security and the institutional base for identifying new avenues of employment and enhanced productivity for women are lacking. The overall employment strategy for women should be viewed legal safeguard, employment opportunities, social services, awareness generation, training support and mobilization. These all help in creating awareness and employment of women. It creates productivity and employment potential, recognition as workers and conscious work-force. For nurseries, creches and aganwadis also offers employment opportunities for large number of women. There are immediate needs to diversify the prevailing occupational base so to promote skilled employment on wider scale. Expansion of small-scale industries is widely recognized as a mean of creating potential for employment for coming generation.
This promotion of small scale industry needs to develop to assist in the provision of supply of raw material, creating of skill, organisation of marketing. The expansion of cottage industries make education, organisation of worker for collective action, training and up gradation of skill in order to raise the status of worker and improve the quality of product. These cottage and small scale industries make increase in income potential. The women’s division at NIPCCD is sensitization programme for judiciary to issue of crimes against women. It provides a new thrust for training and work toward translating national development goals. The central social welfare board is implementing of employment generation schemes of department of women and child development.
Some of the factors identified by the National consultation on women in public sector enterprises for women improved share at decision making level are-(a) providing necessary support structure, (b) positive action, equal opportunities policies, leadership training, (c) working for change in cultural biases, attitude toward women (d) more flexible working hours child and elder care facilities, (e) joint efforts by government employees and …… advancement for women, (f) new approaches of education facilities for women and it make acceptance of women economic role.