Changes in species distribution and abundance of amphibians, birds, and reptiles in Costa Rica in association with changing patterns of dry-season mist frequency and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are also recorded (Still et al., 1999). Earlier timing of reproduction has been found for many bird species (Crick et al., 1997; Slater, 1999) and amphibians (Reading, 1998) in the UK and Europe (Forchhammer et, al., 1998; Bergmann, 1999). Zhou et al., (1995) found a warming trend in the spring to be associated with earlier aphid flights in UK.
Also in UK, Sparks (1999) has associated arrival times of bird migration to warmer spring temperature. Bezzel and Jetz (1995) documented delays in autumn migratory period in Alps and Germany respectively. Brown et al., (1999) reported earlier egg lying in Mexican jays (Aphelocoma ultramarina) associated with significant trend toward increased monthly minimum temperature in Arizona. Dunn and Winkler (1999) found that egg-laying date of North American tree swallows advanced by up to 9 days with increasing temperature at breeding time.
Bradley et al., (1999) document phenological advances in arrival date for migratory birds in Southern Wisconsin, associated with earlier ice melt of a local lake and higher spring temperature. Post et al., (1997) documented differential selection of body size in red deer throughout Norway during 1965 to 1995. Male red deer have been getting larger and females smaller, correlated with warming trends and variations in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Post and Stenscth (1999) reported interactions of plant phenology, Northern ungulates (red deer, reindeer, white- tailed deer, musk oxen, and caribou and Soay sheep) and the NAO.
Jarvinern (1994) correlated increased mean spring temperature in Finnish Lapland with mean egg volume of pied flycatcher. De jong and Brakeficld (1998) noted shifts in color patterns (back with red spots versus red with black spots), most likely related to thermal budgets of lady bird beetles (Adatia bipuncata) in Netherlands, coinciding with an increase in local spring temperatures. Potential for rapid adaptive responses and their genetic cost to populations is studied by Rodriguez- Trelles and Rodriguez (1998). They found microevolution and loss of chromosomal diversity in Drosophila in Northwestern Spain as local climate warmed.