Vitamins are organic compounds that areessential for the human body for proper health, growth, and normal functioningof the body.

If vitamins are not present in the body or is improperly absorbed,the body is vulnerable to diseases due to the specific deficiencies.1 Inhumans, vitamins, unlike macronutrients, are not energy sources but rather theyfacilitate metabolic and physiologic processes. They act as a catalyst torelease energy stored in the macronutrients. Humans cannot synthesize theneeded amounts of these organic molecules. These molecules have to be obtainedthrough the intake of food.

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2However, in recent years, synthetic substitutes such as vitamin tablets havebeen consumed in greater quantities. It is available as an over the counterdrug which makes it more accessible. When many of these drugs are outdated theyare disposed, mostly into toilets or drains.

This eventually enters watersupplies or soil and into plants.3 Inthis work the effect of these vitamins are tested on Pisum sativum, or more commonly known as peas. 1.1  Research QuestionHow does the effect of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6,0.

8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0% solutions of vitamin C and vitamin B1 affectthe length and mass of root and shoot of Pisumsativum?1.2  Background Information1.

2.1  Classification of Pisum sativumDomain: EukaryotaKingdom: PlantaePhylum: SpermatophytaSubphylum: AngiospermClass: DicotyledonaeOrder: FabalesFamily: FabaceaeGenus: PisumSpecies: P. sativum   1.

2.2  Additional Information on Pisum sativumPea is a small round seed that is found inthe pod fruit Pisum sativum. Theybelong to the family, Fabaceae or thelegume family along with beans and peanuts. P. sativum is an annualplant that is planted in the cool season in many parts of the world.

A pea isusually green or rarely yellow. The optimum temperature for the seeds are form13 to 18oC. They don’t grow in the summer heat or tropical climates. Peas are highin fibre, protein, phosphorous, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, lutein, andvitamins A, B6, C, and K.

The parts of apea plant include the testa, embryonic axis (which includes the pulmulahypocotyl, and radicula) and cotyledons. As it grows it develops roots, stem,leaves, tendrils, and flowers. It reaches up to the height of 1.8m. Pea plant havenbeen used for experiments throughout the centuries.

For example, Gregor Mendelused it in his revolutionary experiments on heredity.  1.2.3  Factors Affecting Growthand DevelopmentPlants are affected by both abioticand biotic stresses. Abiotic stress is the impact of non-living factors onplants, whereas, biotic stress is the impact of living organisms on plants.Abiotic stresses include: pH, temperature, salt, and drought. Biotic stressesinclude: bacterial and fungal infections.

4pHpH is the measure of the acidity oralkalinity of the soil. It has a scale form 1 -14, 1 being the most acidic and14 being the most alkaline. pH refers to he concentration of H+ ions (protons)in the media. pH of the soil has strong impact onplant growth. Plants require an optimum pH, usually between 5.

0 – 6.5.5Changes in the pH changes the concentration of protons in the cytoplasm of theplant cells. If these concentrations go beyond the optimum, structuraldeformities could occur. This leads to the collapsing of cellular processes.

4pH can also indirectly affect plant growth. Lower pH causes decreased rates of absorptionof positive ions. While high pH causes nutrient levels to decrease and ionic imbalances.

6 Temperature Like pH, temperature affect plant growthin multiple ways. Each species has its own optimum temperature. When the temperaturefluctuates even slightly beyond this temperature range, biochemical process willalter. But when the temperature increases or deceases 10oC -15oCit will cause profound moderations. These include the decrease in the rate of metabolicreactions, protein and enzyme denaturation, and reduction in the photosyntheticactivity of the chloroplasts.  1 Carpenter, Kenneth, A.

Stewart Truswell,Douglas W. Kent-Jones, and Jean Weininger. “Human Nutrition.

” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 19 Apr. 2017. Web.

01 Jan. 2018..2 Carpenter, Kenneth, and Margaret J.Baigent.

“Vitamin.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 28 Dec. 2017. Web. 01Jan.

2018.3 Scholten-Gutierrez,Melissa. “How to Dispose of Old Vitamins.” LIVESTRONG.COM. Leaf Group,03 Oct. 2017.

Web. 01 Jan. 2018.4 Perry, Leonard. “PH for the Garden.” PH forthe Garden.

N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Jan.

2018..

5 Bower, Doug, Doug Morgan, Koren Phillips, and Brett Roeth.”The Effect of PH on the Grotwh of Green Beans (Draft 4).” TheEffect of PH on the Grotwh of Green Beans (Draft 4). N.p.

, 20 Oct.2005. Web. 01 Jan.

2018.

edu/nsfall05/LabpacketArticles/TheEffectofpHontheGrotwho.html>.6 Mohammad Pessarakli, Mohammad, ed. “Handbook of Plant andCrop Stress, Second Edition.” Books in Soils, Plants, and the Environment (1999): 51-52. Print.