1.

Prevailing State of Affairs:

Taylor found administration or management in his time in a highly unsatisfactory state of development, no better than a haphazard set of rules of thumb. There was no standardization of work. The workers were left entirely to themselves.

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They followed their own method and brought their own equipments. The work in the factory was completely unplanned. Taylor felt the need for the management to discharge their additional responsibilities and do the work for which it was best suited, such as planning, organizing, controlling, determining and coordinating.

Taylor is regarded as the father of Scientific Management, for it was he who first advocated the systematic adoption of method of science to the problems of management. His contribution to the theory has been outlined in following works i. A Piece Rate System (1895) ii.

Shop Management (1903) iii. The Art of Cutting Metals (1906) iv. The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)

2. Philosophy of Management:

Taylor’s philosophy of Management is based on four basic principles: 1. The development of true science of work; 2. The scientific selection of the workmen; 3. Scientific education and development of workmen; 4.

Intimate and friendly co-operation between the management and the man.

3. Methods of Research:

These principles are accompanied by following methods. 1. Time and Speed: Micro analysis of each work 2.

Functional Foremanship: Divided working system into ‘shop’ and ‘office’ each divided into four parts. 3. Piece Rate System: Paying work, not position 4. Standardization of Machines, Work and Procedures: Use of charts, graphs and direction manuals etc.

4. Mental Revolution:

The goal of scientific management can be achieved only if it is accompanied by a complete ‘Mental Revolution.’ It includes 1. Take the attention of the work force away from the amount of surplus and go on increasing that amount. 2. Instead of individual judgment/opinion in all matters relating to work, the decision should draw upon the scientifically arrived views. 3. Friendly cooperation between management and work force.

5. Criticism:

1. An efficiency and initiative oriented theory with an overall emphasis on output, it made man a machine in the factory system. 2. In neglects the impact of informal organisation on workers and work environment. 3.

Simon in his “Organisation” accuses Taylor of emphasizing physiological need only. 4. It has insufficient scientific basis.

For, its analysis lacks complete analysis of an enterprise. Rather, it is limited to the level of shop floor activity. 5. According to Marxists, the workers are reduced to be part of factors of production, ‘a cog in a wheel.’

6. Influence and Significance:

1.

Its emphasis on efficiency as a primarily goal of administration and management has been acknowledged widely. 2. Provided theoretical base for future studies. 3.

Its method and techniques were used extensively by Germany, England, France, USSR, and Japan in their period of growth. 4. Its values and methods are commensurate with idea for reforms in government and adminis­tration. 5. Helped in minimizing wastage of resources. Conclusion Despite limitations, Taylor’s work remains important. He was pioneer in the study of human beings at work.

In brief, he combined theory and practice, thought and experiment and doing and teaching all in one person and in one life.