3. On the basis of structure: (a) Caucus (b) Branch (c) Cell (d) Militia 1. Caucus Type:i. Also called Committee type. ii.

Avoids mass membership. iii. Emphasis on quality rather than quantity.

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iv. Virtually remain inactive between elections. v. With the extension of franchise and expanding mass base, caucus suffers natural decline. vi. American parties fit this description 2. Branch Type: Mass party with open membership and hierarchical structure dominated by a Central leadership delegates are elected by branches to Central body. i.

Central body represents the highest policy­making body. ii. German Social Democratic Party. iii. British Labour Party. 3. Cell Type:i.

A communist invention ii. Smaller and more cohesive than branch type. iii. Organised on the basis of place of work. iv.

Secretive and highly disciplined. v. Their area of interest is more than winning election.

vi. They have wider political interest in changing society. 4.

Militia Type: i. Modelled on the army command and control pattern. ii. Organisation is hierarchical. iii. Expects complete allegiance of members to Leader. iv. Kufler’s Storm troopers.

v. Muslim’s fascist milita. But none of these pure types can be found in reality. Party’s actual functions will always be having mixed structures. In fact his model focuses on four types of parties.

Caucus: American Branch: West European Cell: Communist Militia: Fascist-Nazi