Article III of the Constitution deals with the Judicial Branch, which is the Supreme
Court.The United States Supreme Court's authority is based on its power to interpret the
Constitution, explaining the laws when things are unclear.The Supreme Court has 9 judges.
They are appointed by the President and must be approved by the Senate.Judges are
appointed for life in order to decrease political interference in their decisions.Most of the
cases heard by the Supreme Court come to it from lower courts, appeals.The majority of
cases heard by the Supreme Court involve the Constitution, dispute between states and
other countries, and the United States Government.The United States Supreme Court has
played a major role in both expanding and limiting constitutional civil liberties in the United
States.There are diverse cases that are presented at Court each day.The following cases
both involve the Board of Education.
In 1954, the case of Brown Vs. Board of Education was brought to Court.In Topeka,
Kansas, a black third-grader named Linda Brown had to walk one mile through a railroad
switchyard to get to her black elementary school, even though a white elementary school
was only seven blocks away.Linda’s father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white
elementary school, but the principal of the school refused.Brown went to McKinley
Burnett, the head of Topeka’s branch of the National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People (NAACP) and asked for help.The NAACP was eager to help the Browns, as it
had long wanted to challenge segregation in public schools.
The Supreme Court unanimously declared that separate educational facilities are
inherently unequal and, therefore, violates the 14th Amendment to the United States
Constitution, which guarantees all citizens “equal protection of the laws.”