Article III of the Constitution deals with the Judicial Branch, which is the Supreme Court.The United States Supreme Court's authority is based on its power to interpret the Constitution, explaining the laws when things are unclear.The Supreme Court has 9 judges.
They are appointed by the President and must be approved by the Senate.Judges are appointed for life in order to decrease political interference in their decisions.Most of the cases heard by the Supreme Court come to it from lower courts, appeals.The majority of cases heard by the Supreme Court involve the Constitution, dispute between states and other countries, and the United States Government.The United States Supreme Court has played a major role in both expanding and limiting constitutional civil liberties in the United States.There are diverse cases that are presented at Court each day.The following cases both involve the Board of Education.
In 1954, the case of Brown Vs. Board of Education was brought to Court.In Topeka, Kansas, a black third-grader named Linda Brown had to walk one mile through a railroad switchyard to get to her black elementary school, even though a white elementary school was only seven blocks away.Linda’s father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused.Brown went to McKinley Burnett, the head of Topeka’s branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and asked for help.
The NAACP was eager to help the Browns, as it had long wanted to challenge segregation in public schools. The Supreme Court unanimously declared that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal and, therefore, violates the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees all citizens “equal protection of the laws.”..