Tidal volume is significantly important in the
matter of ensuring enough ventilation to the lungs to prevent injuries to them,
and to measure the tidal volume you need to conduct a pulmonary function tests.

Pulmonary function tests are considered one of the diagnostic tests, which are
non-invasive and are used in the functionality evaluation of the lungs. The
whole process of pulmonary function was demonstrated using airflow
transducer, bacteriological filter, and a Syringe. The airflow transducer is
vital in the way that it gives out the vital information regarding the
functional status of the entire respiratory system. In this experiment, the use
of the airflow transducer has been proposed, as well as bacteriological filter,
and a Syringe since they’re considered to give the most accurate measurement
tools.

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The
apparatus gets a compete for breathing sequence of an individual in the
shortest time possible. This has got the inhalation phase, the exhalation
phase, and the pause phase. The study was conducted to investigate the
hypothesis of the rising of tidal volume when exercising in a pulmonary
function test. This report gives a full description of the investigated five
individuals and then discusses the implication of the tests. 

Introduction

The pulmonary function test is vital especially
in the investigation of an individual with respiratory pathologies and their
monitoring. They give out crucial information, which reflects the relationship
of both the large airways and the small ones. Besides, it provides information
on the pulmonary parenchyma together with the integrity and the size associated
with the entire bed of the pulmonary capillary.

A rise in the ventilation process is greatly
affected by a rise in the frequency and breathing depth.  According to our experiment, the relationship,
which exists between these two factors, was investigated within different
conditions throughout the experiment. Once the hypothesis determination was
made based on tidal volume, which was having two parts; the control experiment
and the real experiment of making the subjects get involved in a vigorous
activity of having to climb stairs. In all the two cases whenever there was an
increase in the minute volume there would also be an increase in the tidal volume
together with the breathing frequency. This made the relationship of the tidal
and minute volume to appear like it was constant and would linear up to half of the entire
vital capacity. Thus, the
hypothesis of the experiment is that there is a large physiological impact of
exercise on increasing the Tidal Volume during the pulmonary function test.

The arterial carbon dioxide, oxygen together with
the ions of hydrogen (H+) is responsible for controlling the ventilation. They
are the primary peripheral chemoreceptors, which act at the bifurcation
especially of the carotid arteries and those of the aortic arch. They are also central
chemoreceptors, which are found in the medulla, for the peripheral
chemoreceptors they are essential in responding to the arterial blood changes
when using the airflow transducer.

The
pulmonary function tests are vital for the determination of the volume of air
and the rate of airflow into the lungs. The amount of air exhaled from the
lungs per breath at a point of maximum expiration and inspiration is referred
to as the Vital Capacity (VC). The VC is comprised of the inspiratory and
expiratory reserve volumes and the tidal volume. Calculating the tidal volume
is really important when it comes to identifying lung diseases and any other
respiratory issues in the human body for example; trauma, asthma.

A hypothesis is always made based on the
restrictions in the simulation. For this experiment, it further hypothesized
that exercising would lead to an increase in the tidal volume. The tidal volume
was calculated basing on the maximal voluntary ventilation and the respiratory
volume.

 

Materials and Methods

The
experiment was performed using the airflow transducer, bacteriological filter,
and a syringe for calibration. Five subjects were used in the experiment, and
it was done at rest or in a relaxed position and then after exercising. This
facilitated easy measurements and accurate determination. The Biological filter
was used to perform the expiratory experiments, and this was to prevent the
spread of bacteria throughout the tests. The subjects were to take a deep
inspiratory breath, then do the forced expiration, and this was to check the
expiratory reserve volumes.

Each
subject was to hold his or her airflow transducer and had to start breathing
through it usually. After a breathing acclimation for like 15-20 seconds, the
data would then be recorded, and the main aim of this was to ensure that all
the systems were functioning as required. The recording was based on the
experimental timer clicks. This was done with about three cycles whereby
maximal inspiration was to be determined through deep inhaling of the subjects
after that holding up their breath and later do the maximum exhalation, which
was to determine the maximum expiration. After getting the readings for the
tidal volume at rest, normal breathing had to continue in about three cycles,
and this was throughout the five subjects. The results at the end of the
experiment indicated less tidal volume on average for the subjects at rest.

After wards the subjects
were made to climb the stairs for about five times and then data recorded after,
which the comparison of the values was made regarding the hypothesis. The time
taken to hold up the breath to obtain the maximum inspiration and expiration
was found out for all the subjects, and this was followed by the
hyperventilation determination. However the subjects redid the same steps as
the one at rest.

Results

Throughout
the experiment, the P value came up more than 0.05; therefore based on the
results, the conclusion was that the hypothesis was not significantly correct. This
was because the way tidal volume is influenced by the activity on the ground
would follow a trend, which was a bit complicated and required the group to
make a lot of adjustments in the experiment. When
the experimental subjects are at rest, it was observed that there is less
oxygen consumption because not much work was done. So the experiment indicated
a reduced tidal volume with a related hypothesis. The intention of making the
subjects to climb the stairs in all about stirring up the rate of the chemical
reaction to generate energy. This requires more oxygen and therefore the tidal
volume increases.

To
determine whether the hypothesis was effective or ineffective, one had to
ensure that there was increased heart rate and breathing, hence making the
individuals climb the stairs. The following graph was obtained from the data
recorded: