Tidal volume is significantly important in thematter of ensuring enough ventilation to the lungs to prevent injuries to them,and to measure the tidal volume you need to conduct a pulmonary function tests.Pulmonary function tests are considered one of the diagnostic tests, which arenon-invasive and are used in the functionality evaluation of the lungs. Thewhole process of pulmonary function was demonstrated using airflowtransducer, bacteriological filter, and a Syringe. The airflow transducer isvital in the way that it gives out the vital information regarding thefunctional status of the entire respiratory system.
In this experiment, the useof the airflow transducer has been proposed, as well as bacteriological filter,and a Syringe since they’re considered to give the most accurate measurementtools. Theapparatus gets a compete for breathing sequence of an individual in theshortest time possible. This has got the inhalation phase, the exhalationphase, and the pause phase. The study was conducted to investigate thehypothesis of the rising of tidal volume when exercising in a pulmonaryfunction test. This report gives a full description of the investigated fiveindividuals and then discusses the implication of the tests. IntroductionThe pulmonary function test is vital especiallyin the investigation of an individual with respiratory pathologies and theirmonitoring. They give out crucial information, which reflects the relationshipof both the large airways and the small ones.
Besides, it provides informationon the pulmonary parenchyma together with the integrity and the size associatedwith the entire bed of the pulmonary capillary.A rise in the ventilation process is greatlyaffected by a rise in the frequency and breathing depth. According to our experiment, the relationship,which exists between these two factors, was investigated within differentconditions throughout the experiment. Once the hypothesis determination wasmade based on tidal volume, which was having two parts; the control experimentand the real experiment of making the subjects get involved in a vigorousactivity of having to climb stairs. In all the two cases whenever there was anincrease in the minute volume there would also be an increase in the tidal volumetogether with the breathing frequency. This made the relationship of the tidaland minute volume to appear like it was constant and would linear up to half of the entirevital capacity. Thus, thehypothesis of the experiment is that there is a large physiological impact ofexercise on increasing the Tidal Volume during the pulmonary function test.
The arterial carbon dioxide, oxygen together withthe ions of hydrogen (H+) is responsible for controlling the ventilation. Theyare the primary peripheral chemoreceptors, which act at the bifurcationespecially of the carotid arteries and those of the aortic arch. They are also centralchemoreceptors, which are found in the medulla, for the peripheralchemoreceptors they are essential in responding to the arterial blood changeswhen using the airflow transducer.
Thepulmonary function tests are vital for the determination of the volume of airand the rate of airflow into the lungs. The amount of air exhaled from thelungs per breath at a point of maximum expiration and inspiration is referredto as the Vital Capacity (VC). The VC is comprised of the inspiratory andexpiratory reserve volumes and the tidal volume.
Calculating the tidal volumeis really important when it comes to identifying lung diseases and any otherrespiratory issues in the human body for example; trauma, asthma.A hypothesis is always made based on therestrictions in the simulation. For this experiment, it further hypothesizedthat exercising would lead to an increase in the tidal volume. The tidal volumewas calculated basing on the maximal voluntary ventilation and the respiratoryvolume. Materials and MethodsTheexperiment was performed using the airflow transducer, bacteriological filter,and a syringe for calibration. Five subjects were used in the experiment, andit was done at rest or in a relaxed position and then after exercising. Thisfacilitated easy measurements and accurate determination.
The Biological filterwas used to perform the expiratory experiments, and this was to prevent thespread of bacteria throughout the tests. The subjects were to take a deepinspiratory breath, then do the forced expiration, and this was to check theexpiratory reserve volumes. Eachsubject was to hold his or her airflow transducer and had to start breathingthrough it usually. After a breathing acclimation for like 15-20 seconds, thedata would then be recorded, and the main aim of this was to ensure that allthe systems were functioning as required.
The recording was based on theexperimental timer clicks. This was done with about three cycles wherebymaximal inspiration was to be determined through deep inhaling of the subjectsafter that holding up their breath and later do the maximum exhalation, whichwas to determine the maximum expiration. After getting the readings for thetidal volume at rest, normal breathing had to continue in about three cycles,and this was throughout the five subjects. The results at the end of theexperiment indicated less tidal volume on average for the subjects at rest.After wards the subjectswere made to climb the stairs for about five times and then data recorded after,which the comparison of the values was made regarding the hypothesis.
The timetaken to hold up the breath to obtain the maximum inspiration and expirationwas found out for all the subjects, and this was followed by thehyperventilation determination. However the subjects redid the same steps asthe one at rest.ResultsThroughoutthe experiment, the P value came up more than 0.
05; therefore based on theresults, the conclusion was that the hypothesis was not significantly correct. Thiswas because the way tidal volume is influenced by the activity on the groundwould follow a trend, which was a bit complicated and required the group tomake a lot of adjustments in the experiment. Whenthe experimental subjects are at rest, it was observed that there is lessoxygen consumption because not much work was done. So the experiment indicateda reduced tidal volume with a related hypothesis. The intention of making thesubjects to climb the stairs in all about stirring up the rate of the chemicalreaction to generate energy.
This requires more oxygen and therefore the tidalvolume increases.Todetermine whether the hypothesis was effective or ineffective, one had toensure that there was increased heart rate and breathing, hence making theindividuals climb the stairs. The following graph was obtained from the datarecorded: