Thurs.Jan.25,2018.                                                                                                                                    Victoria The Struggle to Survive in Ethiopia  Ethiopia is located in Eastern Africa and it’s one of the poorest, most sunny and dry developing countries in the world. As a result, it faces issues such as poverty, food insecurity, and has poor education and health care systems. Ethiopia also experiences occasional famine and drought. These issues can have a large impact on the people and environment of Ethiopia, as well as the population distribution and settlement patterns.  Poverty in Ethiopia No matter where you live, its ideal to have a sustainable and reliable place to call home, with access to basic necessities. Many Ethiopians cannot achieve this. Poverty brings poor health since many Ethiopians cannot afford proper health care because modern hospitals in Ethiopia are private and reserved for the small percent of urban population. People who are in poverty also don’t have access to a proper education or job opportunities. Ethiopia is considered to be one of the poorest countries in the world, with over 30 million people who are living in poverty. This means that 44% of Ethiopians don’t have access to the basic necessities to life. And more than 10 million of these people are intensely affected by food insecurity. Many Ethiopians (about 80%), rely on agriculture to sustain themselves because the majority of these citizens live in rural areas.               http://ethioforum.org/is-ethiopias-building-boom-masking-poverty-bbc/ This is a photo of children sleeping in the streets of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2007. This is just how much of an impact poverty can have on the lives of so many people. Poverty is just one of the many negative effects on the people of Ethiopia, there are many factors that decide poverty. Such as; famine and water scarcity, malnutrition, poor health care and education.   http://chg.ucsb.edu/gallery/ethiopia/images/index.html http://blogs.worldbank.org/africacan/what-studies-in-spatial-development-show-in-ethiopia-part-i Within Ethiopia, Oromia has the largest population out of any other region. Many scattered parts in Oromia make up the areas that have 55% of the population below the poverty line. Most Ethiopians live in scattered rural communities, this helps cut-down on travelling distance. Also, many houses are scattered near farming areas. This map demonstrates how most Ethiopians live in scattered rural communities through its small scattered dark red patches. Malnutrition  Firstly, malnutrition is one of the many factors caused by poverty. Malnutrition is when a person receives a minimal amount of nutrition from their diet that isn’t enough to sustain themselves. Malnutrition effects over 2.5 million Ethiopians who are suffering from extreme food shortages most of these people are children. Out of all the children in Ethiopia, around 44% under 5 years old suffer from malnutrition. And since most of these reported cases aren’t payed attention to, more than half of these children die every year. Malnutrition also prevents Ethiopia from evacuating the cycle of poverty, because a child who is malnourished is not as capable to fight off a sickness. Kids who are malnourished will also perform poorly academically, if they are even able to go to school at all. Malnutrition is often related to poverty because when the Ethiopians cannot afford to grow or purchase good quality food for their children, their kids will grow up without proper nutrients in their diet. This results in their malnourishment.  http://www.cpa.org.au/guardian/2012/1538/images/16-culture.jpg  This is an image that demonstrates the consequences of malnutrition.    http://blogs.worldbank.org/africacan/what-studies-in-spatial-development-show-in-ethiopia-part-i This map demonstrates the percent of children in a given area who are malnourished. There are many scattered dark red areas such as areas up North that show 50%-62% of the children are malnourished. Poor health care and education  Hospitals and facilities with full-time staff are present in the cities and towns of Ethiopia, but 80% of Ethiopia’s population lives in rural areas where it is a challenge to access these hospitals.  Ethiopia also has a minimal number of medical professionals and rural patients are usually sent to a larger facility. The downside of this is that there is a drastic shortage in staff such as doctors and nurses, this results in a small number of options for medical procedures or treatment. The world health organization claims that there were only just over 1800 doctors in Ethiopia, this means that there isn’t even one doctor for every 10 000 people. Difficult access to healthcare also causes a low life expectancy in Ethiopia which is only about 65 years old as of 2016. This causes many Ethiopians to result to using “traditional healing methods”.  Some of the most common sicknesses in Ethiopia are; malaria (you get this sickness when a parasite enters your blood). Tuberculosis (caused by bacteria that effects the lungs). And respiratory infections (it’s an infection in the lungs or air ways, such as bronchitis or pneumonia).  According to the World health organization there were more than 3 million known cases of malaria in 2009, around 150 000 cases of tuberculosis and over 30 000 Cholera infections. This is related to poverty because poverty increases the chance of poor health and can put people below the poverty line if they cannot get the treatment they need whether it’s too costly or not available. Education in Ethiopia is available for children from ages 5-16, although, with no proper clean learning environments and weakly educated backgrounds, many kids don’t get an in-depth education. In Ethiopia, studies show that there is only about one teacher for every sixty-four students, this results in students being unable to obtain the help they need in order to succeed. Out of the whole population of Ethiopia, about 49% are illiterate, this is very high compared to the rest of the world. This relates to poverty because without an education you aren’t able to get a well-paying job which leads you to being unable to afford basic necessities such as food.  https://ethiopiaadevelopingnation.weebly.com/part-2-barriers.html This is an image of children in class at school in Ethiopia who are opening up doors for job opportunities later on in life.  Unsafe water  According to water.org, 61 million Ethiopians lack access to safe water, and 65 million have an insufficiency of improved sanitation. Many women and children from the rural areas of Ethiopia walk for hours through shallow wells and unsanitary ponds that animals use, just to collect water. Repetitive droughts cause famine, food insecurity and water-borne diseases as people are urged to depend on polluted water sources. This relates to poverty because people will not develop water-borne diseases if the water is clean. Ethiopians wouldn’t have to travel far or pay for clean water and they won’t fall into poverty if the water is clean, either..  http://www.madote.com/2013/04/eritrea-access-to-clean-drinking-water.html This map demonstrates that Ethiopia is one of the few places that lacks access to improved drinking water. The share of population with access to improved drinking water is less than 40% in Ethiopia. Drought, famine  Firstly, frequent droughting results in poor rural families to live without food. This can lead to starvation and occasional famine.  In the past two decades, shortages of water have severely affected Ethiopia, this causes rivers, wells, lakes and ponds to practically disappear or become very shallow. Ethiopians who live in rural areas are forced to obtain water from these unsafe resources as there isn’t much of a choice. Diseases, human waste, animal waste and worms are just a few of the factors that could be contaminating the water.  One of the worst side effects of drought is famine. In 1984, there was a very destructive famine in Ethiopia. Even now, over two decades after the famine, Ethiopia is still stuck with food shortage issues. By mid 1984, it was obvious that another drought and connected famine of high intensity was beginning to impact larger parts of northern Ethiopia. Crops in Northern Ethiopia almost failed completely. By late 1985, another year of drought was predicted to happen and one year later, the famine had travelled to areas in the Southern mountain regions.  http://www.imaging-famine.org/blog/index.php/tag/mike-wooldridge/ This is a newspaper article from the time of the famine. This famine took the lives of almost one million people which explains the title; “A catastrophe in the making”. By the end of the year in 1984, roughly 8 million people were in danger from lack of food, as of BBCNEWS.com.  SOLUTIONS:  One solution to the issues I decided upon, is to provide better education, especially to girls and women. Some of the women are so uneducated in Ethiopia, that they fear doctors and treatment. Many young girls stay home to help their mothers with travelling to find clean water. This takes away from the potential of the young girl who could grow up and end her families’ cycle of poverty, by getting a higher paying job. And moving to another country or even just moving to one of the very few Urban areas that are around Addis Ababa-the capital city of Ethiopia. Both females and males deserve a full-time education in Ethiopia. When these girls and boys learn how to do simple tasks such as reading and writing, they are establishing a base that they can build off of. They can provide a better future for their families, when they are provided with a better education. This can also reduce malnutrition and poor health because if one family member gets a proper paying job they can afford to grow food and purchase food for their families resulting in a decrease in malnutrition. When females understand that doctors and treatment are helpful they could get assistance when their families are ill. They could even train to become one of the very few doctors in Ethiopia themselves, which will cut back on the limited number of doctors. Another solution to the issues I presented would be to raise the minimum wage in Ethiopia. Raising the minimum wage could increase the health of people in Ethiopia, because they could afford treatment, food, clean water and perhaps a more habitable place they can live in. If there is ever a drought or a famine people wouldn’t have to starve because they could solve the issue by purchasing food even when the prices soar. They could afford filtration for their water and reliable shelter to call home.  What we can do: The way we can help with this, is holding fundraisers and spreading awareness about these issues because often times, we live our lives in our own little bubble. All of the issues going on elsewhere are outside of the bubble, irrelevant to us because we aren’t experiencing them. We need to pop this bubble and take into consideration that there are people our age, struggling to find enough food to eat every day and here we are, wasting food and water like its nothing. We should do what Jesus would’ve done, which is helping in any way possible. Every dollar makes a difference and if we join together and include other schools too, we could help give deserving children a better education and adults a higher minimum wage in Ethiopia. The citizens of Ethiopia are children of God too and they deserve to be treated with kindness just like we do. QUESTIONS  Interrelationships: What are the major water bodies people have access to in Ethiopia? Even though there may be many water resources present in Ethiopia, only about 10% of the resources have basic sanitation services. If Ethiopians have access to any form of flowing water such as a river or a pond, its usually contaminated with animal waste and will cause you to become very sick if you drink it. Does Ethiopia have a lot of tall mountain regions? What types of landforms are in Ethiopia? Ethiopia has highlands in the northwest and southeast regions. The Simien Mountain Region’s Ras Dashen is the largest mountain in Ethiopia and its located in the Northwestern region of Ethiopia. Some other types of landforms in Ethiopia are; valleys, rivers and desserts.  What is the area of Ethiopia? The area of Ethiopia is about 1.104 million km². How many seasons are there in Ethiopia? There are 3 known seasons in Ethiopia. Between September to February is the season known as the “bega,” it is the long, dry season. In March and April, there is a short, rainy season called the “belg”. Followed by May which is a hot and dry month. Then comes June, July, and August which is supposed to be the long rainy season “kremt” but the rainy season isn’t always successful. (From visualgeography.com). Geographic Perspective: What is the average annual pay for the lowest paying job in Ethiopia? (Economic) Ethiopians make $470 a year on average, this means that Ethiopians live off of just over one US dollar every day. Are the crops produced in Ethiopia reliable to help sustain future generations? (environmental) At this rate, Ethiopia’s population is constantly increasing, there is a high demand for food, clean water, proper health care and education right now. The crops being produced right now aren’t a reliable way of life for generations to live by. Although, food aid from other countries to Ethiopia and the help provided from a variety of organizations gives Ethiopia the potential to be a sustainable country. Do droughts affect children’s education? (cultural/social) In areas affected by droughts, children can no longer attend school on a day to day basis. The children are usually out of school at a time of a drought due an inconsistent supply of food and water. Also, their health is at risk at the time of a drought. Some children walk long distances across Ethiopia with their mothers in search of any water they can find, this drives them away from their classrooms and in search of water. Has the government found resolutions to the continuous droughting? (Political) The government has acknowledged the severity of the droughts happening in Ethiopia. To help resolve the issue of drought they have been working with international aid organizations for 3 years now. And created a plan for what might happen next time there’s a drought.  Spatial Significance: Does Ethiopia have a larger population than Kenya? The population of Ethiopia is approximately 107 million and the population of Kenya is approximately 50 million. Therefore, Ethiopia does have a larger population than Kenya since Ethiopia’s population is more than double Kenya’s population.  https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumba/aa/Ethiopiapop.svg/1024px-Ethiopiapop.svg.png  This is a population pyramid of Ethiopia. It shows that there is more of a younger population in Ethiopia between 0-25 years old and very few people live past their sixties.  Is the droughting in Kenya, Africa as severe as the droughting in Ethiopia? Relating two countries with similar issues. The severe drought that travelled across Africa including Ethiopia, also impacted Kenya, Africa. It left over 12 million people in need of aid. The drought in Kenya is as severe as the droughts going on in Ethiopia as both places are in the horn of Africa which is the area that was affected. Both areas suffer from loss of agriculture, food insecurity and malnourishment.  https://www.courses.psu.edu/test/test100_hkr/AFIM/Main_HTML/@RG_E.html This is the horn of Africa, countries such as Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya are just a few of the countries that make up the horn of Africa. Questions Continued: Does Oakville have a similar population distribution to Ethiopia? Ethiopia has a scattered population distribution made up of many rural communities and Oakville has more of a linear population distribution (due to people living along roads). And it’s made up of many suburban communities. This means Oakville doesn’t have a similar population distribution to Ethiopia. Is Ethiopia overpopulated when compared to China? The population of China is over 1 300 000 000 people. Since Ethiopia’s population is about 107 000 000 people, China makes it seem like Ethiopia has a very small population. Even though Ethiopia is less populated then China, China’s area is a lot larger. Ethiopia is overpopulated and its population is expected to increase even more in the years to come. Patterns and Trends: How much has the number of adopted children by US families increased over the past 10 years?   http://journals.openedition.org/africanistes/4104 This table shows that the number of children who were adopted by US families. The number of adopted children increased drastically from 2004 to 2007 by about 1000 children. In 2002, it started off as just over 100 and was at about 2250 children by 2009.  What is the death and birth rate in Ethiopia? The birth rate is about 40 births/1000 population. The death rate is about 10 deaths/1000 population. Will the population density of Ethiopia increase or decrease in the future? In the future, the population density of Ethiopia will most likely increase because it’s been going at a steady increasing pace for decades. It would be very unlikely for the population to suddenly decrease because Ethiopian families want to have many kids who can help their parents. Are there patterns in which the time of year that droughts occur most often? Droughts usually happen during the time of year when its most dry, which is usually during the season called “bega” that lasts from September to February.  Summary of the causes and effects  Cause Effect Drought Poverty and Famine, since a very valuable resource isn’t present during a time of a drought, Ethiopians cannot grow their crops. Considering agriculture is 80% of what Ethiopians rely on to sustain themselves, drought brings starvation which can then lead to death. Poverty Malnutrition, when families fall below the poverty line they cannot afford to provide proper nutrition for their child’s diet. As a result their kids are malnourished. Poor health care Malnutrition, when kids cannot get the proper treatments they need, their sicknesses will continue to get worse. Limited access to health care Low life expectancy. Poor quality education Poor health, many people, especially women in Ethiopia fear doctors and treatment due to the fact that they are just uneducated. Unsafe water Water-borne illnesses such as Cholera.  Conclusion: In conclusion, Ethiopia is a very poor country that needs our help. Not only does it suffer from droughts, famine, poor education and health care as well as contaminated water, but Ethiopia is a country just like Canada. That has the potential to be a sustainable place to live in, we just need to put forth our effort to change Ethiopia for the better.