This researchpaper examines how the use of mobile educational application influences thelearner’s comprehending and motivation through*the process*of learning in the*classroom and home *environment.This research focuses on a study the effectiveness of the application inteaching of section two TOEFL preparation of structure text and writtenexpression. The*mobile application has*become a commonpart*of our daily*lives, they used formany kinds of*purposes.It including as*educationalobjectives in learning a foreign languagewhich in this case the researcher uses the Duolingo application.
This paperused quasi-experimental quantitative research. Participants included theresearcher’s twelfth grades students of Madrasah Aliyah Atqia Bondowoso. Participantsdivided into two groups, first 20 participants as an experimental group who obliged to use the application on theirmobile*device in classroom*and home for two weeks,while the*other 20participants grouped as a control group which usesthe traditional course. Both of the group tested using pre-test andpost-test.
The findings analyzed use IBM SPSS version 20. Thus, Duolingoapplication can be considered effective. Keywords:mobile educational applications, foreign languages, Duolingo, TOEFL, structureand written expression. 1.
IntroductionNowadays, technologies are highly developed andengaged in almost all human activities. The mobile applications used for manykinds of purposes and have become a common part of our daily activities. Kostrzewski (2012) stated that thelearning*process*of the*young*generation*today*is important to go*with technologies that*became the*ordinary knowledge*of their daily*life.
This kind*ofprocess hopes to create a *significant motivational aspect to*the students*and leads them to*the*effective*learning*process*both in the*formal school and informal*learning area.For these*reasons E-learning*increasingly used*in formal and informal*school or even in a college*degree. The online*learningis*an excellent opportunity*to learn because it creates*a suitable, enjoyable and*entertaining*learning environment, which creates a*positive mood to*the learner (Mason & Rennie, 2006). TOEFL*is one of the standardized tests*which have applied by institutions anduniversities all around the*worldto test the English*language ability or*skills of their students*.
It also*becomes one requirement of the*registrationor even graduations in some collegedegree for the*students. However, several*studentsencountered the difficulty in answering the TOEFL in section*twowhich present them with the Structure*and WrittenExpression. Thispaper*is mainlyfocused on research examines how the use of mobile educational Duolingoapplication in teaching TOEFL preparation of structure and written expression.It also discusses the encouragements of the learner’s motivation and understandingthrough the process of learning in the classroom and home environment.
Duolingoapplication, which enables free online language learning. Duolingoexplored, considered and tested in terms of appropriateness and quality of aneducational application tool in the classroom. The goal of this paper first isto know the effectiveness Duolingo in teaching TOEFL preparation of structureand written expression on twelfth grade. Second is to know the learner’s response tothe application.
The third is to examinethe student’s motivational impact from the use of Duolingo. The research findings hope to assist foreign languagesteachers and students who take part in foreign languages courses which combining the use mobile learning educationalapplication in their process of learning. There are researchers thatexplain the effectiveness of mobile technologies which can help and improvestudent in language learning skills, especiallyin learning structure text. Mobile technologies know gives the students to havehigh usability on learning, be easy and simple to work with and some observethat mobile technology improve the satisfaction and desire to learn useful (Viberg & Gronlund, 2013). They also foundthat the disadvantages of the mobile devicefor learning are the small keypad and the screen of mobile devices. It also very dependence on the use of the internet. Theother previous research conducted by Norshahila Ibrahim et al. (2016)about the Effectiveness Study on Multimedia Mobile Application for Children:Mfolktales Application, University of Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak,Malaysia.
Their research paper discusses the effectiveness testing forMFolktales Application to measure effectiveness level in students’comprehension performance after using the MFolktales mobile application. It hasa significant improvement in the Experimental group so MFolktales applicationcan be considered as effective. There is a lot of Applications in Mobile devicesfocuses on Education accessible by free of even premium on the internet. Thisresearch paper focuses on examines the effectiveness of one of that MALL namelyDuolingo. The researcher uses this application in teaching the preparation ofsection two in TOEFL which focuses only on practicing the student’s writtenexpression and structure. It examined how the process of language learningthrough the application of Duolingo recognized by the students, and whichaspects and features in this application that motivate them to use it more intheir language learning process.
To understand the Duolingo effectiveness,three research questions were presented. a. What are the effective aspects of using Duolingoapplication in language learning process, especially in teaching TOEFLpreparation of structure and written expression?b. How are studentsrespond to the application through their process of language learning?c. Is there a motivational impact from use Duolingo mobileapplication language learning? 2. Theoretical Background The Common Agenda of European Council (2001)defines six levels of proficiency in a language. All level that explainedincludes following skills: reading and listening comprehension as receptive orinput skills, writing and speaking as productive or output skills. There arethree fields, which should be consideredwhen describing mobile assisted language learning: (1) physical or touchable,(2) pedagogical, and (3) psychosocial areas (Bachore, 2015).
Physical issues in this researchrelated to a size of the screen, storagecapacity, battery life and the speed of processor of the mobile phone. Theissues of Pedagogical in this research refer to confirming the tasks suited tothe affordances of the mobile phone used. Psychosocial issues in this researchrefer to the social environment. While laptops and desktop used for work or researchpurposes, it also can be the substitutes devices for the mobile devices. Mobile devices designed for personal orsocial purposes. Based on Jarvis & Archileos (2013) if learner uses acomputer in their process of language learning. Every procedure which includesthis process that makes the learners improve their language skills counted as a Computer Assisted LanguageLearning (CALL). CALL has become founded and recognized in the language educationin the early 1980s.
The early domain of CALL limited only to PC or desktopcomputers with a few basics programs of mechanical software. However, this areahas developed over the years to include virtuallearning environments, mobile applications, online blogs and vlogs (videoblogs), online courses, etc. The improvement and mobile technologies advance, theirwidespread availability has directed to the new creation area called MobileAssisted Language Learning (MALL).
Chen (2013) explain that thisterm used both in the informal and the formal area of foreign languageslearning. The term of MALL actually is differentwith CALL as of its personal or private use, the function of portable technologydevices like mobile phone allows the learner to learn in the new ways. MALL isa quite new research area, although people nowadays have been using personalmobile or portable devices (Gafni R. , 2009). Gafni et.al (2017 ) stated that the maingap in MALL to the traditional language learningprocess is the mobility and connectivity of the learner, besides to the potentialsof spatial and time shifts yielding improved learning opportunities.
Figure1. Some screenshot of Duolingo MobileApplication. The application languages learning of Duolingo is available and accesisable freely from internet web and mobilephone. This application created in November 2011 by Luis von Ahn andSeverin Hacker (2013). Duolingo offers theso many languages learning both for non-English speakers and English speakers.Duolingo used to practice integrating both output and input skills of languagesuch as speaking reading, writing and listening, also understanding and translatingthe meaning of the text. The most common activities to accomplish these skillsare by after perceiving a picture that represents a word, the learner writingand memorize the word, by translating a word and sentence from the nativelanguage to the foreign language or vice versa, writing a word or sentenceafter hearing it, matching pairs of a wordand also pronouncing a sentence.
Duolingo includes several subjects, such asmodal verbs, plurals, food, animals, which further separated into severallessons that adjusted to the learner’s level. Each subject matter in thisapplication represented by a node that changes its grey color which showingthat the subject has not started, to gold color, indicating the best or optimumcontrol of the subject matter. The gold color can downgrade or turn back to another color if the algorithm of Duolingoresolves that some learners’ vocabulary has forgotten. In this application, the students rewarded with points,according to their success, so they can compete against their friends to seewho has the highest amount of points. 3. Methodology3.1 ObjectivesThe objectives of this paperare to know the effectiveness of mobileDuolingo mobile application in teaching TOEFL preparation of structure andwritten expression. The pre-testconducted to test the level of existingknowledge that respondents learned beforegetting any treatment by using the application.
The post-test conducted toidentify a significant difference betweentwo different participants after undergoing a specific particular treatment. Inthe other hands, the aim of this paper also to tested and to summarize therelationship between the samples that have used in the testing. 3.2 Effectiveness TestingThe effectiveness testing conducted to measure effectiveness levelin students’ comprehension performance after using the Duolingo mobile application. Thistesting used a quasi-experimental,pre-test/post-test a control group design (T.
D. Cook & D. T. Campbell, 1979). The pre-test andpost-test testing conducted to observethe student’s performance before and after using Duolingo application ascompared to TOEFL preparation test in structure and written expression.Effectiveness testing used Quasi-ExperimentalDesign involved two groups of respondents from twelfth-gradestudents of Madrasah Aliyah Atqia Bondowoso: (i) the control group (CG), (ii) theexperimental group (EG.
The study population includes students who took part inresearcher classes English language courses. They divided into two group of participants. One group (EG)consist of 20 students used the educational mobile application Duolingo on amobile device.
Meanwhile, the other group (CG) comprise 20 students during thesame period just learning the subject matter with traditional language learningprocess. Table 1 shows the sample number involved in the effectiveness. Figure2. Students playing and challenge their friends in Duolingo. Table 1 Sample Number of Effectiveness Testing Group Number of students (N) Control group (CG) 20 Experimental group (EG) 20 As mentioned, the twelfth grades students of MA ATQIA divided into two groups, which are the controlgroup (CG) and the experimental group (EG). The aim of conducting the pre-testof Quasi-experiment is to evaluate thelevel of existing knowledge that respondents gained before getting anytreatment as the preparation for post-test. During pre-test evaluation, a TOEFLpreparation test focused only in Structure and written expression in section 2about 20 questions in 20 minutes dividedinto 10 questions of structure and 10 questions of written expression deliveredto all groups of students.
A teacher assigned to give a brief introductionabout what should students do and face from the test. Then, all groups ofstudents asked to answer questions by themselves with limited of time. Theanswers and score from the test then recorded.
After conducting the pre-test, the preparation for post-test made.The aim of conducting the post-test Quasi-experimentis to identify a significant differencebetween two different participants after undergoing a particular treatment.Again, students in (CG) went through the same activity as in the pre-test.Students in (EG) given a mobile application called Duolingo. Duolingoapplication used to leverage both four major skills in languages learning suchas reading, listening, writing, speaking, it also teaches the students abouttranslating and understanding skills. Duolingo includes several subjects, suchas modal verbs, plurals, food, animals, which further separated into severallessons that adjusted to the learner’s level. Interactive social competeprovided in this application the students in the form of rewarded points.
Theycan collect points according to their success, so they can compete againsttheir friends to see who has the highest amount of points. The students in (EG)were given a limited time to use the Duolingo application for 2 weeks. In thisgroup have experience using smartphoneand tablets. As first motivation to the group (EG) to use Duolingo in theirdaily life of learning languages, the teacher gavea reward for a student with the highest score in Duolingo application. Aftertwo weeks passed, post-tests were given to all groups with the same format withpre-test but the different question inthe same difficulty. The result of theeffectiveness testing will also discussin the next section.Inorder know the motivation response through the application. After post-test conducted.
All participants (EG) asked to complete an exit surveywith close-ended questions design related to their experience with Duolingo andtheir motivation through the application. Open-ended questionsallow the respondent or participant to give a greater variety of responses, butit makes the statistic analyze difficult because the collected data must be coded or reduced in some manner. Closed-ended questions which this paper uses are easy to analyze statistically.The researcher limits the responses that participants can give (Jackson, 2009). Hypotheses evaluation applied to summarize the relationshipbetween the samples that have used in the testing. For testing the hypotheses,one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) had applied (Coakes & Ong, 2011). The one-way ANOVA calculationproduced ? value. If the calculated ? is higher than 0.
05, the null hypothesisaccepted. Meanwhile, if the calculated ? value is lesser than 0.05, the nullhypothesis rejected (Sekaran & Bougie).There are twonull hypotheses had constructed:1. Hypothesis (H01) – There is no significant difference between thepre-test mean scores of the students in the control group (CG) and the experimentalgroup (EG)2. Hypothesis (H02) – There is no significant difference between thepost-test mean scores of the students in the control group (CG) and the experimentalgroup (EG) 4. Result and Discussion4.
1 Pre-Test ResultAs mentioned above, Quasi-experiment had included pre-test andpost-test on the selected samples. Table 2 shows the descriptive analysis of pre-test scores for CG and EG. Based onTable 2, students in EG got a better mean scoreas compared to the students in CG with a smalldifference. Apart from pretest evaluation, hypothesis testing to test the level of existing students knowledgehas performed. The variables tested to examine whether the relationship thathad stated is, in fact, true. The null hypothesisis: Hypothesis(H01) – There is no significant difference between the pre-test mean scores ofthe students in the control group (CG), and the experimental group (EG) Table.2 Descriptive analysis of pre-test scores.
group Mean N Std. Deviation EG 66.10 20 6.789 CG 65.30 20 7.219 Total 65.70 40 6.
929 In testing the hypothesis (H01), one-way ANOVA had performedto analyze the significant difference ofall groups. According to (Sekaran & Bougie)and (Coakes & Ong, 2011), the p-value (Sig.)determine the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis.
With the presentedresult in Table 3, the p-value is 0.720,which is greater than ? value 0.05.
Therefore, the nullhypothesis (H01) accepted. Thus, it could concludethat there is no significant difference between the pre-test mean scores of thestudents in CG and EG. The findings of this evaluation showed that the samelevel of knowledge was gained by the students in all three groups. This findingalso fulfills the aim of conducting pre-test where students in all groupsshould have a similar level of knowledge. Table 3: One-way ANOVA result for pre-test Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 6.400 1 6.400 .
130 .720 Within Groups 1866.000 38 49.105 Total 1872.
400 39 4.2 Post-Test ResultThepurpose of conducting the post-test of Quasi-experimentis to identify the significant difference between two different students afterundergoing a particular treatment. Table 4 shows the descriptive analysis ofpost-test scores for CG and EG. Based on Table 4, students in EG got bettermean scores as compared to the students in CG.
Tomake a conclusion on the difference between the effect of using Duolingo mobile application and traditionallearning approach, hypothesis evaluation considered. Table.4 Descriptive analysis of pre-test scores. group Mean N Std. Deviation EG 73.40 20 5.365 CG 64.40 20 6.
893 Total 68.90 40 7.612 Similar to pre-test evaluation, hypothesis testing had conductedto compare students’ performance for all groups after getting the treatment.The null hypothesis is:Hypothesis (H02) – There is no significant difference between thepost-test mean scores of the students in the control group (CG) and theexperimental group (EG).In testing the hypothesis (H02), one-way ANOVA had performed to analyze the significant difference between thegroups. In Table 5, the p-value is 0.000,which is lesser than ? value 0.
05. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H02)rejected. Thus, it could conclude that there is a significant differencebetween the post-test means scores of the students in CG and EG.
The findingsof this evaluation showed that different levels of knowledge gained by thestudents from all groups. One group gotthe highest mean scores as compared to other groups. Table 5 Descriptive analysis of post-test scores. Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 810.000 1 810.000 21.233 .
000 Within Groups 1449.600 38 38.147 Total 2259.
600 39 4.3 Students Respond and MotivationAt the end of the study, the participants (EG) were asked to complete an exit surveywith questions mostly related to their experience with Duolingo and their motivationthrough the application. Overall 20 people completed the exit survey.
Table . 6 Students respond and Motivation Do you agree with the following statements? Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Disagree nor Agree Agree Strongly Agree percent “Duolingo was easy to use” – – 5 30 65 “Duolingo was helpful in studying English” – – 5 40 55 “I enjoyed learning English with Duolingo” – 5 15 25 55 “I am satisfied with Duolingo” – 5 15 40 40 “I want to learn more languages with Duolingo” – 5 5 60 30 If we combine the “Agree” and “StronglyAgree” answers we can say 95% of group (EG) that use Duolingo mobileapplication consider it easy to use, 95% think Duolingo application helps them inlearning English language, 70% enjoy learning English with Duolingo and 80% ofresponder satisfied with Duolingo. In the last statement,the researcher stated the close-ended question of “I want to learn morelanguages with Duolingo” to know the motivational of students in using Duolingoas their daily leaning language application, the answer of this statement shows that 90% of the student want to learnmore languages using Duolingo.5. ConclusionThe educational Duolingo mobile application developed based on theproposed conceptual model that has validated to see the correlation between theelements included in the model (Steely, 2013). Based on thevalidated conceptual model, Duolingo mobile application has been successfully designing and developed.
As a conclusion, this paper presented the effectiveness testingfor Duolingo mobile application. This testing conducted to observe theapplication’s performance among students in teaching TOEFL preparation ofstructure and writing expression before and after using the mobile application.40 children divided into two groups. A quasi-experimentaldesign used to test the pre-testand post-test results while ANOVA used totest the hypotheses. The results from the testing shows that: (i) there is nosignificant difference between the pre-test mean scores of the students in CG,EG, (ii) there is a significant difference between the mean scores for thestudents in CG, EG, (iii) their responds and motivations are 90% agree to useDuolingo to learn more languages in their daily learning process.
Learning a new language can bore repeating task to remember vocabulary,exercise same structure again and again. Therefore, playing with the words andcompeting versus others friends can be very encouraging, thus, stimulating thelearning process. Based on these findings of the effectiveness testing proves that Duolingomobile application is an effective tool for students to improve their knowledgeand score in section two TOEFL preparation test of structure text and writingexpression through the application proffed that the students who used the application got better marks as comparedto the students who did not.