There has been a large increase in the amount of children whoare obese in the USA in last three decades. According to Cunningham (2014), thepercentage of overweight children increased from 4.2% to 15.3% in 1963 and 2000respectively. Obesity is a disease in medicine which we can measure as overabundance1 weight of the body. It is believedthat the main causes of this illness are caloric imbalance and lack of physicalactivities (Dehghan, 2005).Robinson (2001) states another possible reason is television viewing.
Exacerbation of being overweight in childhood can lead to the moreserious illnesses in the adulthood like hyperinsulinemia, poor glucose tolerance and diabetes (Lobstein, 2004). Consequently, the aim of this paper is to evaluatethe following ways to prevent this disease at school: lunch programs andprograms of physical activities.Thesis2 The first possiblesolution for schools to prevent childhood obesity in the USA is healthy diet based on the balance of calories.The school lunch programs has the potential to have a great influence onchildren’s and young adult’s diets because they eat a considerable part fromtheir total food intake per day (Gleason and Suitor, 2001). The SNDA-IIIstudy (Gordon and Fox, 2007 cited in Story, Nanney and Schwartz, 2009)presented that in spite of the fact that U.
S. schools mostly provide schoolmeals that meet the standards for key nutrients, such as protein, calcium, vitamins A and C, and iron, onlyapproximately one-third of them meet the USDA standards for total fat.Minimizing fats following therecommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for the United States can lead to areduction of excess calories. The minimum number of calories in food forstudents of elementary schools should be 664, and for students in the secondaryschool should be 825 (Gordon, 2007 cited in Story, Nanney and Schwartz, 2009). Another solution toprevent childhood obesity is program of physical activities. Physical activitycan be described as caused by the contraction of skeletal muscles, any movementof the body that consumes body energy above the basal level (Bauer, 2011). In the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines forAmericans, the U.
S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) supposes that?hildren should spend at least 60 minutes a day to exercise. Main part of this exercises should be filledby moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity (Bauer, 2011).First of all, these two solutions will be compared by efficiency. According to Brown andSummerbell 3 a number of studies conducted toprevent obesity is rising. From 1990 to 2005, 23 studies were carried out.During the year from 2006 to 2007, another 15 studies were identified.
Theamount of studies conducted in secondary schools is growing. For example, inthe first studies, only 6 out of 23 schools were secondary schools. However, inthe experiments were participated 15 schools, 7 of them were secondary schools.An approximate one-third of the studies based solely on diet, one-fifth of thestudy based on physical activity and 9 of 20 studies combined healthy food andphysical activity.
In 2004, the Institute of Medical Sciences and SocialProtection at the University, on behalf of the National Institute for Healthand Clinical Excellence (NICE), conducted a series of surveys on the preventionof obesity. According to these experiments, the results showed that a combinedoption in the form of healthy food and exercise can help to prevent obesity inthe long term and showed significant changes between control and interventionBMI. Whereas separately the school diet and physical training programs giveonly a short-term effect. The next criteria forevaluation is feasibility. For example, we will take the results of a two-yearstudy – Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at School (TEENS) that was conducted in 16 schools of TwinCity, Minnesota and metropolitan area from 1997 to 2000. The aim of the studywas to increase the amount of fruit and vegetables and reduce the number offoods containing large amounts of fat in school meals. Although there were somesuccesses in the intermediate time; however at the end of time no noticeablechanges were detected. As positivesides, we can note the effect on the choice of food.
Thus, assuming the favorof children to a less caloric meal than to more high-calorie foods. Despitethis indicators the quantity of food consumed was not affected by thisteaching. According to certain datain the school curriculum of primary classes of American schools, approximately100 minutes per week are devoted to exercises of physical education (PE).However, it is believed that the amount of moderate and vigorous physicalactivity (MVPA) received during these education does not meet the recommendedstandards.
The results of Go For Health (GFH) study show that the time spent onMVPA can be increased from less than 10% to more than 40% of the total classtime. By the end of the experiment, an ordinary student in schools where therewas an intervention spent approximately 16 minutes on the total time of PE onMVPA, or in other words, 80 minutes for a week. The noted should be the factthat during this intervention, which lasted for two years, one worker almostcompletely engaged in teaching PE teachers. This study is a confirmation of thefeasibility of introducing physical learning into the school curriculum (Bruce,1991). In conclusion, the aim ofthis essay was to evaluate the school lunch program and physical education byeffectiveness and feasibility to prevent childhood obesity in the USA byschools.
While both solutions are quite feasible separately, if we talk abouteffectiveness, then a long and good effect can only be provided by jointimplementation in schools. Therefore, perhaps the best way to prevent childhoodobesity in American schools is to introduce a healthy diet and physicalexercises to a school schedule.