Theodore Roosevelt- After the assassination of President William Mckinley, Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th President of the United States in 1901. Before becoming Vice President, he was the Governor of New York. Theodore Roosevelt became the youngest person to become President after Mckinley was assassinated. He ended up winning a second term in 1901. He had policies against monopolies, and was a conservationist who put away 200 million acres of land for national forests, reserves, etc. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in negotiating an end to the Russo-Japanese War. He also started the construction of the Panama Canal.
After he left the White House to go on a safari in Africa, he came back to the U.S. to run for president, only to fail. Cooper, John Milton. “Theodore Roosevelt.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 11 Sept.
2017, www.britannica.com/biography/Theodore-Roosevelt.Trench Warfare- Trench Warfare is when opposing sides fight from trenches. In World War 1, Trench Warfare became the most logical way to fight, mostly because of the new equipment that was being used, such as machine guns.
It was seen in the Civil War as well as the Russian-Japanese War. Soldiers would go into the trenches, giving up mobility for safety. In World War 1, there would be multiple trenches that ran at least a mile long. They would be zigzagged so that if an enemy was standing at one end, they could only fire a few feet ahead. The conditions of these trenches were not the best. They were full of rats, lice, etc.
which would spread disease. Trench Foot and Trench Fever were very common illnesses among the trenches. Eventually, new technology overtook the trenches. Flamethrowers and chemicals made it possible to attack soldiers in trenches.The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica.
“Trench warfare.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 6 Dec. 2017, www.britannica.com/topic/trench-warfare.Versailles Treaty- The signing of the Versailles Treaty officially ended World War 1 on June 28th 1919.
It was written by the Allies (U.S., Italy, Britain, France, Russia, and Italy) with little participation from Germany, and signed at the Versailles Palace near Paris, France.
It includes 15 parts and 440 articles that held Germany responsible for the start of the war, and reassigned Germany’s territory. France wanted to make it so that Germany could never start a war with them again, but the rest of the Allies did not want a pretense for another war. There were many parts to the treaty, which stated Germany’s new boundaries, when they were able to join the new League of Nations, Germany’s financial obligations, and a lot more.
Germany signed it, but not without some protest.The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Treaty of Versailles.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 29 Dec.
2017, www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Versailles-1919.Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire- The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory was located in Manhattan and employed mostly young immigrant women. They worked in small spaces at rows of sewing machines. The factory had four elevators, but only one was in working condition. There were two sets of stairs, but one was locked from the outside, and the other only opened inward. People knew about the dangers of fires in these factories, but because of corruption in the government, laws were not put in place to prevent them.
On March 25th, there were 600 workers in the factory when the fire started. The manager tried to use the hose, but it was rotted. The workers tried to use the elevators but it only held 12 people at a time, and after a couple trips it broke down. The girls who went down the stairs were trapped because of the locked door. The fire was over in 18 minutes. Many people burned or suffocated to death, while others died from jumping off of the building.
This horrific incident is what led to the regulations in factories to be more strict. For example, the Sullivan-Hoey Fire Prevention Law that was passed the following October.History.com Staff. “Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire.
” History.com, A Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/topics/triangle-shirtwaist-fire.
The Panama Canal- The Panama Canal is a passage of water that connects the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The French attempted to do this in 1880, but failed. President Theodore Roosevelt was the person to push the project. In 1904, the U.
S. began to build the canal across a 50 mile long part of the Panama isthmus. The chief engineer at the time, John Wallace, saw problems instantly. The French equipment was out of date and needed repairs, and yellow fever and malaria were spreading, which was scaring off workers.
With the pressure to high, he resigned and John Stevens took over. He recruited West Indian workers and ordered new equipment. He also convinced President Roosevelt that a lock system would work better. However, he resigned a couple months later and Lt. Col. George Washington Goethals took over.
He focused on clearing the mountain range and even stopped a strike immediately. The canal finally opened on August 15, 1914, however the grand ceremony was toned down a bit because of the start of WWI.History.
com Staff. “Panama Canal.” History.com, A Television Networks, 2015, www.history.com/topics/panama-canal.
Prohibition- In 1917,President Woodrow Wilson put a temporary prohibition during WWI in order to save grain. That same year, the 18th Amendment was submitted for ratification. The 18th amendment banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. It was ratified on January 29th, 1919 and was effective on year later. That October, congress passed the National Prohibition Act.
This was a set of guidelines for the enforcement of Prohibition. It was a challenge for law enforcement to enforce Prohibition at first. The IRS (Internal Revenue Service) was first put in charge of enforcing Prohibition, but it eventually transferred over to the Justice Department. There was an overwhelming amount of illegal production and sale of alcohol. Speakeasies, an illegal spot to drink, were becoming popular, as well as gang related violence. The support for Prohibition was deteriorating by the end of the 1920s.
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for president and was against Prohibition. He won the election and in 1933, Congress proposed the 21st Amendment that would repeal the 18th Amendment. Even after the 21st Amendment was ratified, some states still continued to prohibit alcohol.
But by 1966, all the states had abandoned the ban. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Prohibition.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc.
, 23 Mar. 2017, www.britannica.com/event/Prohibition-United-States-history-1920-1933.The Ku Klux Klan- The Klu Klux Klan was founded in 1866 and by 1870, had spread to almost every state in the south. It was first formed as a club by former Confederate soldiers in Pulaski, Tennessee. This was the group that formed during the Reconstruction era and was a way for the white southern resistance to protest against Radical Reconstruction, which consisted of making economic and political equality for African Americans. The years after 1867, the Ku Klux Klan was focused on the spread of violence against Republican leaders (white or black), as a way to protest against the reconstruction era policies.
Even though they targeted white Republicans, black schools and churches were targeted more aggressively. That generation of the Ku Klux Klan faded away by 1876 because of the Democratic control of the south. In 1915, they reemerged near Atlanta, Georgia. They were anti-black, but also disagreed with foreigners, Roman Catholics, and Jews. The hostility towards these groups of people was triggered by the copious amounts of immigrants entering the United States. The burning cross became their symbol, and they wore white robes while marching in parades and burning crosses during the night. They eventually faded away again due to the Great Depression, but fully ended in 1944. They were quiet for awhile but surfaced again during the civil rights movement in the 1960s.
The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Ku Klux Klan.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 4 Sept. 2017, www.britannica.com/topic/Ku-Klux-Klan.