The difference betweenconstitutional states and absolute monarchies is that constitutional states havegovernments that recognized rights that pertained to individuals andrepresentative institutions. On the other hand, absolute monarchies believethat kings derive their authority from god.

Kings created laws and determinedpolicies. In the seventeenth century, England and the Netherlands were constitutionalstates made of different forms. England formed a constitutional monarchy whilethe Netherlands had a republic that was based on a representative government.

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The basic idea of constitutional monarchy is that the state selects its head byholding elections and through hierarchy means. Although England and theNetherlands formed constitutional states each underwent struggles. Englandunderwent a civil war where disputes between religious and political sectorsarose. In the political aspect, the king and the parliament disputed due to theking’s ability to pose new taxes without the approval of the parliament whilein the religious aspect there was tension between Anglican King and the Calvinistparliament. On the other hand, the Netherlands was ruled by King Phillip II ofSpain and he suppressed the Calvinist movement which led for people to rebelagainst the king’s rule. This rebellion led the Netherlands to create what wascalled the Dutch republic.

The rebellion against King Philip II allowed theNetherlands to declare their independence in 1581.In addition, absolute monarchiesrely mostly on the support of nobles. French monarchy was the most absolutiststate. Cardinal Richelieu played an important role absolutism because he wasthe architect and a church official who worked as a chief minister for KingLouis XIII. Richelieu worked to enhance the authority of the king by destroyingnoble’s castles and aristocratic conspiracies. Richelieu built a bureaucracythat was a royal power base where it was staffed by only commoners that wereloyal to the king. Louis XIV also known as the “sun god” built the Versailles wherehe moved his court.

King Louis XIV encouraged nobles to live there so that hecould keep an eye on them to ensure their loyalty. At the Versailles King LouisXIV ruled the state, maintained a huge army, and promoted economic development.He provided the nobility with accommodations in return for absolute rule. Russialike France was also an absolutist state. Peter I led absolutism in Russia he envisionedtransforming Russia into a great military power. Peter the great developedmodern Russian army by providing extensive training and modern weapons.

He alsodemanded that his aristocrats to follow western Europeans fashion and demandedthat men shaved their beards.