The difference between
constitutional states and absolute monarchies is that constitutional states have
governments that recognized rights that pertained to individuals and
representative institutions. On the other hand, absolute monarchies believe
that kings derive their authority from god. Kings created laws and determined
policies. In the seventeenth century, England and the Netherlands were constitutional
states made of different forms. England formed a constitutional monarchy while
the Netherlands had a republic that was based on a representative government.
The basic idea of constitutional monarchy is that the state selects its head by
holding elections and through hierarchy means. Although England and the
Netherlands formed constitutional states each underwent struggles. England
underwent a civil war where disputes between religious and political sectors
arose. In the political aspect, the king and the parliament disputed due to the
king’s ability to pose new taxes without the approval of the parliament while
in the religious aspect there was tension between Anglican King and the Calvinist
parliament. On the other hand, the Netherlands was ruled by King Phillip II of
Spain and he suppressed the Calvinist movement which led for people to rebel
against the king’s rule. This rebellion led the Netherlands to create what was
called the Dutch republic. The rebellion against King Philip II allowed the
Netherlands to declare their independence in 1581.

In addition, absolute monarchies
rely mostly on the support of nobles. French monarchy was the most absolutist
state. Cardinal Richelieu played an important role absolutism because he was
the architect and a church official who worked as a chief minister for King
Louis XIII. Richelieu worked to enhance the authority of the king by destroying
noble’s castles and aristocratic conspiracies. Richelieu built a bureaucracy
that was a royal power base where it was staffed by only commoners that were
loyal to the king. Louis XIV also known as the “sun god” built the Versailles where
he moved his court. King Louis XIV encouraged nobles to live there so that he
could keep an eye on them to ensure their loyalty. At the Versailles King Louis
XIV ruled the state, maintained a huge army, and promoted economic development.
He provided the nobility with accommodations in return for absolute rule. Russia
like France was also an absolutist state. Peter I led absolutism in Russia he envisioned
transforming Russia into a great military power. Peter the great developed
modern Russian army by providing extensive training and modern weapons. He also
demanded that his aristocrats to follow western Europeans fashion and demanded
that men shaved their beards. 

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