The status of English as the world’s mostpreferred lingua franca, it has become one of the crucial languages should bemastered in this global era. Writers support to this statement; (Zhiping & Pramasivan,2013),Efrizal (2012), (Yee & Abidin, 2014), (Leong & Ahmadi, 2017). Nevertheless,mastering English is not an easy task (Alharbi, 2015).
It needs a big effort and strong power to do (Ghiabi: 2014).It is assumed that language is best learnt when students actively use it theclassroom (Mart, 2013). Frankly speaking, student willbe able to master English wellwhen they are engage actively in leaning it and use it in the classroom. Yet,triggering students’ engagement actively in my speaking class was the bigproblem that I encountered. For this, it effects my students’ speakingachievement that is considered low and the class was not interesting. Along my five years teaching experience in speakingsubject I was wondered by my students for most of them kept silent in myspeaking class. And I used to ask to my students “This is a speaking class,right?” and they always answered “Yes”. “Then, what should you do in thespeaking class? Again they answered, “Speaking”.
They know what should they dobut they don’t want to do that. So what was the matter? This is my big questionfrom year to year of teaching speaking in the first years in my institution. And I couldn’t stand on this situation. Ibegan to evaluate my previously teaching practice through observing erring thepreviously semester students’ speaking achievement.
For the students’achievement was still unsatisfied, I decided to do an action that could boostmy students’ speaking ability. Starting from conducting an interview and givingthe students a pre-test I began to execute my action. Figure 1 shows thestudents’ speaking achievement that was gathered from the pre-test. Theresult of students’ pre-test was very disappointed. For this reason, then Imake some reflection on my teaching practice. I also discussed with mycolleague in order to find the best solution for my big problem. When I askedher what should I do on my speaking class so that my students are willing tospeak up, she just simply said “Give them lots of task”.
Therefore as thelecturer I was challenged to do a research on my speaking class. I took thesecond semester of English Department students of Universitas Suryakancana in theacademic year of 2016/2017 as the subject of the research. There were 28students as the participants. 1. LITERATURE REVIEW2.
1 The nature of speaking Naturally, language is speaking. Understandinga language is commonly defined as an ability to understand and speak thelanguage. Speaking is the ability used by a person on daily communication.Speaking is a tool to express, share, communicate one’s idea, opinion, desire,or feeling to another (Shahrestanifar and Rahmy, 2014.
p. 147). Efrizal (2012)adds the definition of speaking “that speaking is one of the ways to manifestwhat is in one’s mind orally”. Meanwhile, Derakhshan, Khalili, and Behesthi (2016)define speaking as a productive ability that involves two core categories;accuracy and fluency. Accuracy involves the accuracy of vocabulary, grammar,and pronunciation. While fluency deals with the ability to keep speak inspontaneous setting.
The last definition comes from Juhana (2012. p.100) thatspeaking is a process of building and sharing meaning by the use of verbal andnon-verbal symbols, in many different contexts. It purposes to communicateeither transactional or interactional to serve a message.1.
2. Factor influencing speaking learningAs English is used as a tool forinternational communication, mastering it either written or spoken is a mustrecently especially for the English department student. There are many studiesclaim that of the four language skills, speaking is consider as the mostdifficult skill faced by the students compared with the other three; reading,writing and listening such as (Tuan & Mai, 2015), (Adriana, Melendez, Gandy,Zavala, & Mendez, 2014), (Ahmed & Alamin, 2014), (Derakhshan, Khalili,& Beheshti, 2016), and (Mirhadizadeh, 2016). There are some factors that influence speakinglearning; psychology (motivation, anxiety, shy, fear, and lack of confidence).Some studies proved that anxiety effects second language mastery; Nacidan Hasan (2013), (Arnold, 2011), (Tuan & Mai, 2015). The second factor is linguistic factor (vocabulary,grammar, fluency, and accuracy) (Mahripah, n.
d). Masteringspeaking of other language/foreign language is not an easy task for bothteacher and student (Alharbi, 2015). This conditionalso faced by my students. Therefore the precise teaching method is needed tocrack the difficulties in speaking then enabling the students to improve theirspeaking ability. 2.3 Community Language Learning Method Community Language Learning is ateaching method that can be used for teacher, lecturer, or languagepractitioners to stabling students’ confidence and motivation as well as inthis case improving their speaking ability.
Community Language Learning is oneof recommended teaching methodologies in language setting. It is labeled as’humanistic’ methodology which involves psychological aspect and students worktogether to develop what skill of a language they would like to learn. Thismethod firstly developed by Charles A. Curran and his association which thecharacterized as Counseling-Learning theory where the teacher has a function asa counselor and the teacher as the client. This method emphasis on process andon the uniqueness and wholeness of the person and integrated the personality ofthe learners into the educative process.
For Curran as it stated by (Chimombo, 1993) views all learning asprogressing over five stages paralleling five stages of human development;first stage was called as an embryo; the second stage was foetus, then birthstage, adolescence, and adulthood. In language learning, stage 1 is a stage inwhich the learner (client) knows nothing totally depend on the teacher(counselor) knows everything. Then a bit little she/he grew became anindependent learner. In this stage the learner being increasingly able to saywhat she/he wants using her/his native language over the counselor’s helptranslating the utterance into target language. There is a basic differentbetween stage 3 and 4 which the client resent of the utterance correctly andthe counselor’s role is to correct the inappropriate utterances. Six proceduresare recommended in teaching Community Language Learning Method; recording thestudents’ speaking, transcribing students’ speaking, reflection on experiencein learning process, reflective listening, self-correction and small group task(Nagaraj, 2009). There are manyresearchers discovered that Community Language Learning method is an appropriate way to help students inlearning language especially in improving speaking ability including the workof Fayed (2016). Fayed called Community Language Learning as an approach ofteaching, hence he used the term CLLA stands for Community Language LearningApproach.
His research finding revealed that Community Language Learning iseffective in improving the students’ speaking skill. Nevertheless, he remindedthat Community Language Learning should be used appropriately in the classroomregarding to the students’ intensive participation in all class activities.Further evidence in support Fayed’s finding was Fatemi and Adel’s investigationon their study. Having analyzed the data gathered by giving questioner to 91EFL learners and 34 MA and PhD EFL teachers from five English Departments ofIslamic Azad University on their perceptions and expectations on the mosteffective method of language teaching at university level statistically usingSPPS software, the result revealed that Community Language Learning wasconsidered as the most effective teaching method. Yet, it was reminded thatsyllabus designers, policy makers as well as language teachers should be awareof the effective methods in an EFL context and be more selective in theirdesign. (Nurhasanah, 2015.) reveals further reason whyCommunity Language Learning Method is effective method in language leaning. Theresearch stated that students’ participation increased not only theirconversation but also their motivation in speaking class.
For these theirspeaking ability also improved. Widiastuti’s research undertaken in 2012 found thatCLL method could improve the speaking ability in the aspects of pronunciation,fluency, vocabulary, grammar as well as content. Another researcher, (Pujasari, 2014) concluded that CommunityLanguage Learning in an effective method in teaching speaking to the secondgrade students of Stikes Bakti Tunas Husada, Tasikmalaya in the academic year2011/2012. She also reminded that in the implementation of CLL method, ateacher must consider about the students’ level of confidence. From the fourstudies that were cited as previously research in can be seen that CLL methodwas successfully used as the base theory in conducting a research. And thismethod will be connected with the process of doing this current research basedon the research focus that has been determined by the researcher. Thereforethis paper is a part of my dissertation highlights on how the teacher’scompetence as the facilitator in the speaking class can improve students’speaking ability that is represented on the students’ improvement in theirspeaking achievement.Havingadministered a pre-test before the action and post-tests; post-test 1,post-test 2, and post-test 3, then comparing the average scores of each test,this presents study was aimed at investigating the implementation of CommunityLanguage Learning methodology in speaking class.
The paramount purpose was toshow the improvement of 27 students’ speaking ability of the second semester ofEnglish Department in Cianjur in the academic year 2016/2017 by theimplementation of Community Language Learning methodology in speaking class. 2. METHODThis current study is based on the classroomaction research.
The model of the study in this research was taken from (Ferrance, n.d.) in Bassou, (2016. p. 93).
Experts sound the term ofaction research differently such as (Carr, 2006) term it as a methodology, (Deemer, 2009) call it as an authentic process of a methodology, Hein(2009) use “change”, while (Koshy, 2005) and Bassou (2016), (Hine, 2013) call it as inquiry, discipline inquiry, and reflective inquiry respectfully. (Creswell, 2012) stated that:”Actionresearch designs are systematic procedures used by teachers(or other individuals in an educational setting) to gather quantitative andqualitative data to address improvements in their educational setting, theirteaching, and the learning of their students. In some action research designs,you seek to address and solve local, practical problems, such as aclassroom-discipline issue for a teacher. In other studies, your objectivemight be to empower, transform, and emancipate individuals in educationalsettings”. This research was adapted from Ferrance’scycle model. Three cycles were conducted which involve six steps in thismodeling method of the research namely: identification of the problem,gathering data, interpreting data, acting on evidence, evaluating the result,and next steps applied in in each cycle.
Visually, the phases can be seen inFigure 1