In 1858 a Royal Commission chaired by the Duke of Newcastle, was formed to investigate the rising level of public expenditure on education. The findings, titled The State of Popular Education in England, were published in 1861 and recommended that money for education should continue. Such funding would be based upon a system of"payment by results".

The Vice President of the Education Board at this time, Robert Lowe, accepted the main points set out by the Newcastle Commission and in 1862 announced a Revised Code for Education. The aim of this essay is to explain the intentions and targets of the revised code and whether these were achieved. The Commission was appointed in June 1858 and after examining the reports of Inspectors of Schools from 1839 to 1858 the Commissioners decided they required fresh information on schools. In order to obtain this, Assistant Commissioners were selected to gather the information from a number of districts.

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These districts were to be representative of the country, and comprise two of the agricultural, manufacturing, mining, maritime, and metropolitan areas. Robert Lowe, at this time the Vice President of the Education Board, accepted the report totalling 634 pages on behalf of the Government. Lowe was born in Nottinghamshire in 1811, educated at University College, Oxford; he was called to the bar in 1842. After immigrating to Australia, where he developed a successful law firm, he returned to England in 1850. He took office with the government in 1852 and in 1859 was appointed Vice President of the Education Board.

Following the 1868 General Election, Lowe became Chancellor of the Exchequer and then in 1873 he became Home Secretary. During 1880 he was created Viscount Sherbrooke and served in the House of Lords until he died in 1892. "To inquire into the present system of popular education in England, and to consider and report what measures, if any, are required for the exten..