The political systems of Mexico and China in comparable times The nature of the political systems of Mexico in 1519-21 and China in the 17th century was one of imbalanced distribution of wealth, customs that enforced oppression of a lower class, women within any class, and a circular widespread corruption due to an ineffectual government and political system. The customs can be examined as a cause or support of each respective political system in China and Mexico. The main problem of these two societies was the distribution of wealth to the powerful and the impoverishing of the majority of the societies' people.

In each society, the women were looked on as subject moreso to the men's use of power. With each society's imperfections, the government in place sometimes even served to reinforce the criminal element of society. With the foreign invasions from Spain to Mexico and the Manchus to China, the systems were thrown more into chaos-like conditions. Chaos is what T'an-ch'eng, China, seemed to go through the 17th century, enduring earthquakes, floods, other natural disasters, and the onslaught of bandits and crime (Spence 26).

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Such was the nature of this supposed worst-off city. At the least, it can be used as an example of the poverty the Chinese people of the lowest rung on the political system. These people were overtaxed because the taxation system lent to corruption.

The duties of tax collection fell to a headman (Spence 37,46). Often, this headman could even be bullied by the more powerful elite or gentry. Under a system known as pao-lan (Spence 48), a protection and proxy remittance system, those who had connections to degreed people were able to pay for a lesser tax amount, under this indirect payment where they claimed status under the degreed landowner, who had a lower rate. In turn, however, since the same tax was due, those not in these proxy relationships had to pay an excess to cover the amo.