The appropriate location or detection of vein vessels gives
large contribution in biometrics like human identification, matching, in the
field of forensic and in medical applications. Other biometrics features having
several disadvantages which will not bother if we go for vein detection which
having its unique features. The appropriate location of veins plays very
important role in medical application for needle infusion for the purpose of
drug or medications delivery in patients.

 

The biometric gives a normalized,
efficient and discriminating representation of feature. There are various types
of biometric recognition.

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Finger
print recognition

Pattern of finger print are
unique to each person. Even twins also have different finger print patterns.
This technique has some disadvantage also. Disadvantages of this system are age
of user, dryness and wetness of finger, temporary or permanent cuts on figure
can affect the performance of system because all this above things effect on
pattern hence give a poor pattern for recognition. User may go through the difficulties
in authentication process.

 

Face
recognition

There are various types of facial
scan those are by capturing an image of face by using cameras or by using
infrared patterns of facial heat emission. Facial recognition generally used
for identification instead of verification. It includes eyes, nose, lips, and
so on. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require touch of any
device. The disadvantage of this technique is that the quality of capture image
depends on lightening, background, and angle of camera. And another
disadvantage is appearance of person changes time by time.

 

 Iris Recognition

The iris is a color portion of
eye which surrounds the pupil and this portion of eye is used for recognition.
The iris pattern can be obtained through the video based images. This
technology can be used for identification and verification both. Advantage of
this recognition system is iris pattern does not change throughout the life and
it has smallest acceptance rate. But the position head and eye is very
important to get accurate results. And people should not move their head during
data acquisition. It requires a very high resolution of captured images because
iris is very small portion of eye.

 

Voice Recognition

This recognition uses different features of acoustics which
are different in individuals. There are various vocal qualities like frequency,
short time spectrum of dialogue and spectrograms and these are used for voice
recognition. In these type of system user selects the expression and repeat it
during identification and verification. This reduces the risk of guessing the
same phrase and entering into system. 
But noise and echoes can reduce the quality and accuracy of system.
Another disadvantage of this system is voice changes illness or in different
moods and it can cause authentication problem.

 

Insertion of
intravenous catheters plays an important role in any surgery. Physicians face
the major problem for accessing vein for IV drug delivery or taking blood
sample for test. It is important for children’s, adults, and critical patients.
Because of poor visibilities it may possible that unnecessary puncturing of
vein can be happen. And this may results in bruise and permanently damage of
veins. This system give an approach for IR vein detection system and it helps
in identifying veins on the back side of hand. IR LED ring is used for infrared
radiation. Smartphone camera is used to capture the image and its preprocessing
can be done by using MATLAB. Noise removal filter and adaptive histogram
equalization technique is used to enhance the image. This system only
implements the acquisition and segmentation of image 3.

 

Vein detection considered as one of latest biomedical
techniques. Different difficulties found in design and implementation of device
regarding to image processing algorithms and lighting system at low price. Specialists
confront the issue while distinguishing veins for intra-venous medication
conveyance. A few issues can be happens those are wounds, rashes, blood clump.
Therefor framework needs to create which will distinguish non-obtrusive
subcutaneous veins. So modified webcam is utilized for catching vein pictures
and PC vision is utilized for processing. This framework can be utilized for
treatment of varicose veins, profound vein thrombosis and vascular sicknesses. This
system can be used for treatment of varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis and
vascular ailments. This system has only worked on acquisition and segmentation
and it does not belong to IR imaging which is stationary it encounters a lot of
artifacts 6.

 

Utilizing infrared radiation for
biometric applications is new and energizing idea that convey top of the line
applications in various fields including security and medication. While a
couple of devices have just been actualized, there is a solid requirement of
low cost sensing device. This exploration has been centered around a simple to
utilize, cost effective vein design recognition framework that utilizations
near infrared  radiation yet the
calculations and the equipment lighting and detecting head can effectively be
utilized as a part of different applications in the field of legal sciences,
human acknowledgment or in medicinal applications 3-9

 

For
intravenous medication and withdrawal of blood the intravenous access and
surgical perforation are invasive procedure in medical field every day. The
numbers of process which corresponds to vein detection are blood draws,
peripheral catheter insertion, intravenous therapies, etc. For intravenous drug
delivery and other medical situation doctor suffers from difficulty. Therefor
device which can clearly show vein is needed to develop. The system relate to
development of non-invasive subcutaneous vein detection. This system uses a CCD
camera for capturing image and compute software module. This system works on
video but under the particular ideal light conditions and therefor it needs
external adjustment or automatic software calibration. USB cable restrict
transfer frame rate. This system is able to visualise and detect veins from
anterior side of forearm 2.

 

IR radiations for biometrics provide a
promising result in the field of security and biometrics applications. The use
of vein pattern for person identification is new approach and it uses a vein
network present under the skin. The vein pattern is unique feature in each
individual. The features of veins that is uniqueness and stability can be in
biometrics for identification of person. The method is to detect the veins
using an IR illumination then different techniques is used for enhancement of
vein image for identification of person. This work consists of IR vein
detection and matching of systems for identification of persons. The novel
scheme approach is used which capture image by an infrared illumination. This
system is used to detect veins on palm dorsal surface and it is limited to NIR
images and implementation in MATLAB 1.