Genghis Khan was a warrior and ruler of genius who, starting from obscure and insignificant beginnings, brought all the nomadic tribes of Mongolia under the rule of himself and his family in a rigidly disciplined military state. He then turned his attention toward the settled peoples beyond the borders of his nomadic realm and began the series of campaigns of plunder and conquest that eventually carried the Mongol armies as far as the Adriatic Sea in one direction and the Pacific coast of China in the other, leading to the establishment of the great Mongol Empire.
Kublai Khan was the fourth son of Tolui, the youngest of Genghis’ four sons by his favorite wife. He began to play an important part in the extension and consolidation of the Mongol Empire only in 1251, when he was in his middle 30s. His brother, the emperor Mongke, resolved to complete the conquest of Sung China, which had been planned by Genghis’ third son, Ogodei, and also to subdue Persia–a task allotted to Kublai’s brother Hulegu, Kublai was invested with full civil and military responsibility for the affairs of China. He appears never to have learned to read or write Chinese, but already he had recognized the superiority of Chinese thought and had gathered around himself a group of trustworthy Confucian advisers.
Marco Polo traveled to china and on his adventure he came to Kublai Khan’s summer palace in Shangdu.Khan sent him on many official tours of the kingdom. These tours took Marco to China’s southern and eastern provinces and as far south as Burma. Marco served as a government official in the Chinese City of Yangzhou for three years.
The Mongol Empire established trade roads to connect Russia and Persia with eastern Asia. Trade routes with the Mongol Empirefrom Europe had a major effect on history and the way of life of Europe at that time. If there weren;t any trade routes with the Mongol Empire Christopher Columbus, might not have discovered th