On July 18, 1918, a boy was born into royalty in a small village near Umtata in Transkei, South Africa.

This boy grew to be known as an icon representing civil rights, equality, desegregation, and the unity of South Africa.His tribal name "Rolihlahla", means "shaker of trees," he is Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela.Nelson Mandela, a non-violent activist against racial oppression frustrated by unchanging policies, who then converted to a leader of infrastructural guerrilla warfare against the South African government, who then returned to his impassioned standards of non-violence thus freeing South Africa from apartheid in the name of justice, anti-racism and democracy. As a non-violent activist, Nelson Mandela fought for racial equality and freedom for his people.During this time Mandela was a member of African National Congress (ANC), an underground non-violent committee attempting to influence the South African government's position on apartheid and was the cornerstone of the anti-apartheid movement.The ANC founded the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) in 1944.Mandela was elected to the ANCYL's Secretary ship in 1947.

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Mandela worked at a grassroots level canvassing support for policy change. Frustrated that talking, educating, debating and civil disobedience were not influencing policies nor creating change but instead provided unsatisfactory results, the leadership realized that the non-violent passive resistance was only effective if the opposition adheres to the same rules. Numerous beatings and killings such as those of the Sharpeville massacre proved that the opposition did not follow the non-violent approach.

Mandela upheld his position of non-violence against people, however, he compromised his position by bombing buildings, and structures to gain a reaction, be heard, and successfully accomplish his mission. Thus, the leadership including Mandela turned from non-violent ways…