The theory of dependency emergedin Latin America in the 1960s. It was born in reaction to the theory ofmodernization, which tried to explain the backwardness of the eastern countriesbecause they did not go past the historical stages of the western countries andthat they lacked scientific-technological developments. The Theory of dependency is atheory of widespread understanding that criticizes the Western countries’relations with Third World countries in a fundamentalist manner since the1960s. The theory basically takes economic imperialism and argues that the mainpurpose of aid to underdeveloped countries is to take the poor countries to theeconomic tongue of the helping country. Many scholars such as Samir Amin,Immanuel Wallerstein, Fernando Cardoso and Andre Gunder Frank have becomeimportant names in this theory. Addiction Theory is essentially an economictheory. Recently, it has become widespread in different fields and disciplines.
One of these disciplines has been international relations. According to dependency theorists,reasonsfor the backwardness of the Third World countries are developed countries. Thedevelopment of these countries can be understood by looking at historicalprocesses, not their internal dynamics. Non-Western societies have been forcedto struggle with internal wars, bumps, etc., under the intervention of westernstates as colonial or semi-colonial. The political instabilities in thesecountries are caused by their inability to have a single economic and culturalstructure stemming from the interventions. The main reason for the wealth ofdeveloped countries is the exploitation of undeveloped countries.
There is alsouneven development and polarization between underdeveloped and developing countries.As capitalist relations exist, it is inevitable that there will be unevendevelopments and there will be polarizations. Third world societies will not beable to access the status of developed countries as long as they followcapitalist countries. Immanuel Wallerstein made astatement in the World System Theory about the relations between developed andundeveloped countries. According to Wallerstein’s “World SystemTheory”, there are central, peripheral and semi-peripheral countries in theworld. According to this theory, there are certain division of labor betweenthe central and peripheral countries.
The role of the environment in thisdivision of labor, raw materials, and is central to the country to providecheap labor. The center with advanced technology produces advanced products.While it is necessary to sell environmental products at cheap prices, thecenter has to buy at high prices While it is necessary to sell environmentalproducts at cheap prices, the center has to buy at high prices.Semi-periphery;the countries according to the center and the countries in thecenter according to the periphery.