The theory of dependency emerged
in Latin America in the 1960s. It was born in reaction to the theory of
modernization, which tried to explain the backwardness of the eastern countries
because they did not go past the historical stages of the western countries and
that they lacked scientific-technological developments.
The Theory of dependency is a
theory of widespread understanding that criticizes the Western countries’
relations with Third World countries in a fundamentalist manner since the
1960s. The theory basically takes economic imperialism and argues that the main
purpose of aid to underdeveloped countries is to take the poor countries to the
economic tongue of the helping country. Many scholars such as Samir Amin,
Immanuel Wallerstein, Fernando Cardoso and Andre Gunder Frank have become
important names in this theory. Addiction Theory is essentially an economic
theory. Recently, it has become widespread in different fields and disciplines.
One of these disciplines has been international relations.
According to dependency theorists,reasons
for the backwardness of the Third World countries are developed countries. The
development of these countries can be understood by looking at historical
processes, not their internal dynamics. Non-Western societies have been forced
to struggle with internal wars, bumps, etc., under the intervention of western
states as colonial or semi-colonial. The political instabilities in these
countries are caused by their inability to have a single economic and cultural
structure stemming from the interventions. The main reason for the wealth of
developed countries is the exploitation of undeveloped countries. There is also
uneven development and polarization between underdeveloped and developing countries.
As capitalist relations exist, it is inevitable that there will be uneven
developments and there will be polarizations. Third world societies will not be
able to access the status of developed countries as long as they follow
Immanuel Wallerstein made a
statement in the World System Theory about the relations between developed and
undeveloped countries. According to Wallerstein’s “World System
Theory”, there are central, peripheral and semi-peripheral countries in the
world. According to this theory, there are certain division of labor between
the central and peripheral countries. The role of the environment in this
division of labor, raw materials, and is central to the country to provide
cheap labor. The center with advanced technology produces advanced products.
While it is necessary to sell environmental products at cheap prices, the
center has to buy at high prices While it is necessary to sell environmental
products at cheap prices, the center has to buy at high prices.
Semi-periphery;the countries according to the center and the countries in the
center according to the periphery.