The term
“innovation” has a wide use, being used with various meanings.

In a broad sense, innovation
defines the introduction of the new for obtaining useful results.

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Other definitions given to the
concept of innovation:

The commercial or industrial
application of something new, a new product, process or production method, a
new market or sources supply, a new form of commercial business or organization

financial. (Schumpeter, 1934)

Activity oriented to
generation, assimilation and capitalization the results of research and
development in the economic and social spheres.(Law 324/2003)

The global process of
technological and commercial creativity, the transfer of a new idea or a new
concept to the final stage of a new product, process, or service activity that
you accept market. (Oslo Manual, 2005). The essential elements of innovation
highlighted in the above definitions.

Innovation is “a change
that creates a new dimension of performance” says Peter Drucker.

In many cases, innovation is
based on inventions, but the two concepts are not

synonyms. According to
dictionary, inventing means “to create, to create something new that does
not has existed before, imagining for the first time; make a technical
breakthrough, “and the invention represents “a solution or technical
realization from a domain of al the commercial or industrial application of
something new, a new product, process or production method, a new market or
sources supply, a new form of commercial business or organization financial.
(Schumpeter, 1934).

Activity oriented to
generation, assimilation and capitalization the results of research and
development in the economic and social spheres. The global process of
technological and commercial creativity, the transfer of a new idea or a new
concept to the final stage of a new product, process, or service activity that
you accept market. (Oslo Manual, 2005)

 

knowledge that presents
novelty and progress to the stage known before. ”

Innovation means “making
a change, introducing a novelty into a field, in a system “and innovation
means” novelty, change, transformation “.

Thomas Alva Edison is one of
the greatest inventors of all times, but has not excelled in the application /
marketing of his inventions.

Over the course of his life,
over 1,000 inventions have been patented known as the electric bulb and
phonograph.

The examples below illustrate
successful innovations that are not based on inventions. Ray Kroc, the founder
of McDonald’s (1955), did not invented new products, but developed a new
service system based on standardizing products and processes, giving customers
quality constant, hygienic conditions, fast delivery and low prices. In the way
similarly, one can be considered a successful innovation “rent a
bike” service -renting bikes for short periods of time. This model of the
business emerged in Europe in the 2000s and quickly saw an increase global,
being applied in major cities around the world as an alternative to classical
transport systems. The main advantages of this service are the reduction of
traffic, noise and pollution, to which they are added easier access in certain
areas and physical exercise.

The above examples show that
innovation is not limited to the exploitation of some inventions. Innovation
involves capitalizing on new ideas, whether they are or not inventions, by
applying them. As far as the novelty of the ideas, The Oslo Manual (2005) distinguishes
three types of innovation: an innovation can be new for the firm, new to the
market or it can be absolute novelty.

Understanding the concept of
innovation also involves clarifying the link with research and development
activities.

In its current sense, the term
“innovation” defines implementation with success of a new idea. But
the achievement of innovation must be seen in a broad sense, in connection to
creative processes that aim to find new solutions their materialization in
various forms. Such a vision is synthesized in the expression “Research
and Development and Innovation” (Research & Development and Innovation).

The phrase
“Research-Development and Innovation” presents innovation as the last
sequence of the cycle of activities done in a way systematically to increase
the amount of knowledge and use in their various fields of activity.

The
Research-Development-Innovation cycle includes three sequences, defined below (Fascati
Manual, 2002; OSLO Manual, 2005):

– Scientific research:
represents the activity aimed at finding new knowledge on matter, nature and
society. Depending on nature of knowledge, they differ:

– Basic research (or
fundamental) research or experimental activity theoretically initiated
primarily for the accumulation of new knowledge on the fundamental aspects of
the phenomena and observable facts, without having to view a specific
application. Basic research analyses properties, structures and relationships,
based on which new hypotheses and theories are formulated.

– Applicative research – is
oriented towards the metamorphosis of the results fundamental research into new
solutions, products and technologies. It is a original investigation for the
purpose of acquiring new knowledge, but being oriented, mainly for a specific
practical purpose or purpose.

– Development: Defines
activities based on research results fundamental and applicative related to the
production of new materials, products and services. It includes design
activities and experimental verification activities of the solutions adopted in
the design process.

– Innovation: Defines the
activities that ensure the application of the results from research and
development in various fields of activity, to achieve results useful. Whether
it’s about assimilating new products, technologies, structures, leadership
methods or new economic models, well-done innovation can determine benefits for
the organization, society, people.

 

The typology of innovation

Innovation is everywhere, new
products and technologies is just the visible part of the iceberg.

Most innovation applications
were in the form of products and new technologies, but the waves of innovation
are wider. There is widespread recognition that new ideas can transform any
activity, any part of the value chain, products and services representing only
the visible part of the iceberg.

In common perception,
innovation is associated with technical progress, which has been the engine of
society’s development over the years. Appearance the car, the phone, the
computers are just a few examples of technical innovation with a major impact
on the economic environment and civilization. But innovation is not limited to
creating products and new technologies (technical innovation), but has multiple
materializations in both organizations and society.

In the first half of the last
century, the Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter distinguished five
innovations: manufacturing new products, introducing new production methods,
opening new outlets selling out, creating a new form of organization, discovering
new sources

of raw materials (Croitoru,
2012; Žižlavsky, 2013).

 This vision on the phenomenon of innovation is
not very different from the classification of innovation after the nature of
the phenomena to which it refers adopted within the Organization for

Cooperation and Economic
Development (OECD), which differentiates the following four

categories (Oslo Manual,
2005):

-product innovation: is the
creation of a new or improved product in terms of technical-functional
characteristics, components, materials, ease of use or other functional
features;

-process innovation: refers to
the development of a production technology or delivery, new or improved on
working methods and a equipment;

-marketing innovation: is the
introduction of a new method of marketing marketing, a relevant change in
appearance, packaging, distribution or product promotion;

-organizational innovation: it
refers to the implementation of new methods organization and management, with
effects on business processes and external relations of the company.

The last category includes
management innovation, which appears as one distinct category in some
classifications (Hamel, 2006).