The term”innovation” has a wide use, being used with various meanings.In a broad sense, innovationdefines the introduction of the new for obtaining useful results.Other definitions given to theconcept of innovation:The commercial or industrialapplication of something new, a new product, process or production method, anew market or sources supply, a new form of commercial business or organizationfinancial.
(Schumpeter, 1934)Activity oriented togeneration, assimilation and capitalization the results of research anddevelopment in the economic and social spheres.(Law 324/2003)The global process oftechnological and commercial creativity, the transfer of a new idea or a newconcept to the final stage of a new product, process, or service activity thatyou accept market. (Oslo Manual, 2005). The essential elements of innovationhighlighted in the above definitions.
Innovation is “a changethat creates a new dimension of performance” says Peter Drucker.In many cases, innovation isbased on inventions, but the two concepts are notsynonyms. According todictionary, inventing means “to create, to create something new that doesnot has existed before, imagining for the first time; make a technicalbreakthrough, “and the invention represents “a solution or technicalrealization from a domain of al the commercial or industrial application ofsomething new, a new product, process or production method, a new market orsources supply, a new form of commercial business or organization financial.(Schumpeter, 1934).Activity oriented togeneration, assimilation and capitalization the results of research anddevelopment in the economic and social spheres. The global process oftechnological and commercial creativity, the transfer of a new idea or a newconcept to the final stage of a new product, process, or service activity thatyou accept market. (Oslo Manual, 2005) knowledge that presentsnovelty and progress to the stage known before.
“Innovation means “makinga change, introducing a novelty into a field, in a system “and innovationmeans” novelty, change, transformation “.Thomas Alva Edison is one ofthe greatest inventors of all times, but has not excelled in the application /marketing of his inventions.Over the course of his life,over 1,000 inventions have been patented known as the electric bulb andphonograph. The examples below illustratesuccessful innovations that are not based on inventions.
Ray Kroc, the founderof McDonald’s (1955), did not invented new products, but developed a newservice system based on standardizing products and processes, giving customersquality constant, hygienic conditions, fast delivery and low prices. In the waysimilarly, one can be considered a successful innovation “rent abike” service -renting bikes for short periods of time. This model of thebusiness emerged in Europe in the 2000s and quickly saw an increase global,being applied in major cities around the world as an alternative to classicaltransport systems. The main advantages of this service are the reduction oftraffic, noise and pollution, to which they are added easier access in certainareas and physical exercise.The above examples show thatinnovation is not limited to the exploitation of some inventions. Innovationinvolves capitalizing on new ideas, whether they are or not inventions, byapplying them.
As far as the novelty of the ideas, The Oslo Manual (2005) distinguishesthree types of innovation: an innovation can be new for the firm, new to themarket or it can be absolute novelty.Understanding the concept ofinnovation also involves clarifying the link with research and developmentactivities.In its current sense, the term”innovation” defines implementation with success of a new idea. Butthe achievement of innovation must be seen in a broad sense, in connection tocreative processes that aim to find new solutions their materialization invarious forms.
Such a vision is synthesized in the expression “Researchand Development and Innovation” (Research & Development and Innovation).The phrase”Research-Development and Innovation” presents innovation as the lastsequence of the cycle of activities done in a way systematically to increasethe amount of knowledge and use in their various fields of activity.TheResearch-Development-Innovation cycle includes three sequences, defined below (FascatiManual, 2002; OSLO Manual, 2005):- Scientific research:represents the activity aimed at finding new knowledge on matter, nature andsociety. Depending on nature of knowledge, they differ:- Basic research (orfundamental) research or experimental activity theoretically initiatedprimarily for the accumulation of new knowledge on the fundamental aspects ofthe phenomena and observable facts, without having to view a specificapplication. Basic research analyses properties, structures and relationships,based on which new hypotheses and theories are formulated. – Applicative research – isoriented towards the metamorphosis of the results fundamental research into newsolutions, products and technologies. It is a original investigation for thepurpose of acquiring new knowledge, but being oriented, mainly for a specificpractical purpose or purpose.- Development: Definesactivities based on research results fundamental and applicative related to theproduction of new materials, products and services.
It includes designactivities and experimental verification activities of the solutions adopted inthe design process.- Innovation: Defines theactivities that ensure the application of the results from research anddevelopment in various fields of activity, to achieve results useful. Whetherit’s about assimilating new products, technologies, structures, leadershipmethods or new economic models, well-done innovation can determine benefits forthe organization, society, people. The typology of innovationInnovation is everywhere, newproducts and technologies is just the visible part of the iceberg.Most innovation applicationswere in the form of products and new technologies, but the waves of innovationare wider.
There is widespread recognition that new ideas can transform anyactivity, any part of the value chain, products and services representing onlythe visible part of the iceberg.In common perception,innovation is associated with technical progress, which has been the engine ofsociety’s development over the years. Appearance the car, the phone, thecomputers are just a few examples of technical innovation with a major impacton the economic environment and civilization. But innovation is not limited tocreating products and new technologies (technical innovation), but has multiplematerializations in both organizations and society.
In the first half of the lastcentury, the Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter distinguished fiveinnovations: manufacturing new products, introducing new production methods,opening new outlets selling out, creating a new form of organization, discoveringnew sourcesof raw materials (Croitoru,2012; Žižlavsky, 2013). This vision on the phenomenon of innovation isnot very different from the classification of innovation after the nature ofthe phenomena to which it refers adopted within the Organization forCooperation and EconomicDevelopment (OECD), which differentiates the following fourcategories (Oslo Manual,2005):-product innovation: is thecreation of a new or improved product in terms of technical-functionalcharacteristics, components, materials, ease of use or other functionalfeatures;-process innovation: refers tothe development of a production technology or delivery, new or improved onworking methods and a equipment;-marketing innovation: is theintroduction of a new method of marketing marketing, a relevant change inappearance, packaging, distribution or product promotion;-organizational innovation: itrefers to the implementation of new methods organization and management, witheffects on business processes and external relations of the company.The last category includesmanagement innovation, which appears as one distinct category in someclassifications (Hamel, 2006).