ii. Problems posed to the country.

1. Problems Posed to Large Families:

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A large family having many children causes many problems to the family. These are given below:

i. Poor Health of the Mother:

Because of frequent pregnancies, the mother may suffer from ill- health.

ii. Poor Housing:

More family members means more space. The family may not afford a good, clean and spacious house.

iii. Economic pressure:

The large family will need more resources. This will lead to immense economic pressure on the parents affecting the quality of life.

iv. Malnutrition:

The family members may not get enough food. This will lead to malnutrition and deficiency diseases.

v. Poor Medical Care:

The family members will require constant medical support. However, because of medical facilities being expensive, it may not be possible to provide everyone adequate medical support.

vi. Improper Education:

Proper educational facilities may not be provided to the children.

2. Problems Posed to the Country:

A high population growth in India has drastic environmental implications like over-crowding, decrease in per capita income, and depletion of food, land, fuel and consumer resources. Like atomic explosion, population explosion is also equally harmful for our existence.

i. Urbanization and Environmental Degradation:

Due to increasing population, farmlands in the rural areas can no longer support the living expenses of additional people. This has resulted in a continuous migration of a large number of people to urban areas with the hope of finding jobs and a better life. This has led to an increase in the urban population.

The growth in urban population stresses the urban environment by increasing the number of squatter settlements, and slum dwellers in slums with no proper sanitation facilities, causing pollution of air, water and soil.

ii. Increasing Population and Transportation:

Increase in population results in a corresponding increase in the means of transport in rural areas in general and in urban areas in particular. The total numbers of vehicles have increased tremendously in the past. Increase in the number of automobiles as a consequence of phenomenal growth in population, has increased the pollution load (air pollution, water pollution and solid waste pollution).

iii. Increasing Population and Education:

We all know that education is one of the most important things for economic and social upliftment. Although the literacy rate is growing, but we still have the largest illiterate population in the world. The increasing population further adds up to the problems of providing education to all.

iv. Increasing Population, Agricultural Development and Environmental Degradation:

In order to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing population of the country new agricultural techniques have been adopted. The application of modern scientific techniques, agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), expansion in irrigation facilities and the development of high-yielding varieties of seeds have created hazardous environmental problems.

v. Increasing Population and Deforestation:

Due to substantial increase in the agricultural land, lots of forests have been cut down. Due to deforestation, excessive irrigation and natural hazards, such as floods, etc., land is being degraded and wasteland is increasing.

The increased use of fertilizers and pesticides to boost agricultural productivity has immense adverse ‘ effects on land and water resources of our country. Agricultural land has been extensively polluted due to pollution from fertilizers and pesticides.

vi. Population, Industrial Development and Environmental Pollution:

Growth in human population has resulted in increased requirements of food, shelter and day-to-day products. To meet these requirements, industry has expanded and industrial growth has made many Indian cities, centres of health hazards, due to pollution of groundwater, air, water and waste hazards.

vii. Increasing Population and Water:

The availability of water is limited. Increasing population will need more water. Thus, availability of water will be scarce with the increase in population.

viii Increasing Population and Depleting Energy Sources:

Energy is needed for almost all our day-to-day activities whether for cooking, transportation, factories or at home. Presently we are largely dependent on fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum for energy. At the current rate of consumption, our fossil fuel reserves will be exhausted within a few hundred years. Increasing population will need even more and more energy. This will further complicate the situation.

ix. Increasing Population and Depletion of Mineral Reserves:

Our mineral reserves are limited, once finished they cannot be replenished (i.e. they are non-renewable). More population means more requirements of minerals, leading to fast depletion of mineral resources.