The purpose of this paper is to describe the role of theDomain Name System (DNS). This paper will discuss why it is so important tohave a protocol like DNS, so computers can communicate and transfer data effectively.This paper will also describe the various types of data communication andtransmissions like IPv4 and IPv6. Also discussed is how the Internet Protocol(IP) addressing standards relate to the use of DNS. The final part of thispaper will use Compare and contrast of IPv4 and IPv6, what the benefits of eachare and what advantages IPv6 has over IPv4.IPv4 versus IPv6Domain Name ServiceDomain Name Service (DNS) uses Port 53 and is a networkservice that uses a hierarchical system that takes a web address likeGoogle.com and changes it into an Internet Protocol (IP) address.

This IPaddress could look like 173.194.205.105 which is one of many IPs used byGoogle.com, in some cases if a domain name such as www.google.com isn’t working and a user couldtype in the IP address 173.194.

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205.105 and will be directed to Google.com. TheseIPs can also be translated from 173.194.

205.105 to Google.com, this process iscalled reverse DNS. Hierarchy Structure and Role of DNSDNS as a whole is used in conjunction with other networkservices. The services included in its hierarchy consists of Root Servers, Toplevel domains, and Subdomains. Root Servers are the first step in the DNSprocess, they are used by DNS to answer requests for records and return a listof authoritative name servers from the Top level domains (TLD). TLDs are theclosing portion of a web address such as .com, .

gov, and .edu. These areinstalled on the Root Server for use by those searching for an address such asgoogle.

com. If the Root Server is not loaded with a google.com then it will notknow what to return and give an error.

TLDs are assigned by the InternetAssigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and they are in charge of the DNS root zone.Subdomains are part of TLDs, such as pagethree.book.com and pageone.book.comare part of the domain book.com.

The main purpose of DNS is to make it easierfor people to visit web pages without having to memorize the IP addresses oftheir favorite sites. Instead of visiting 151.101.201.140, people can simplytype www.reddit.

com. “No other database onthe planet gets as many requests as DNS Servers” (Brain, Crawford, 2018). Currentlythere are billions of websites that have their own unique IP address, a lot ofthese IP addresses are changing and being reassigned daily by the IANA. Therole that DNS plays in the hierarchy relies on network efficiency andparticular internet protocol standards so that it may effectively handle thebillions of requests. DNS and IPv4/IPv6In order for DNS to work properly it relies on the use ofInternet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), and the more recent Internet Protocolversion 6 (IPv6).

IPv4 is the most widely used IP addressing scheme, but isquickly being phased out to make room for the more robust IPv6. With IPv4. DNSmust be configured with new standards according to RFC 3596 so that iscompatible with both IPv4 and IPv6. This is done by modifying the query types,”All existing query types that perform type A additional section processing,i.

e., name server (NS), location of services (SRV) and mail exchange (MX) querytypes, must be redefined to perform both type A and type AAA additional sectionprocessing.” (Thompson, 2003).

This means that DNS must be backward compatibleand allow a smooth transfer of domain look up by seeing IPv6 addresses and translatingthem into human readable domain names like Google.com. Compare and Contrast IPv4/IPv6Back in the early development of the internet, IPv4 wascreated with over 4.3 billion available web addresses using 32 bit IP addresses.For the time this was more than enough because not everyone owned a computer,no one was on the internet, and we didn’t have computers in our pockets. In theearly 1980’s IANA saw that eventually they would run out of addresses for IPv4and eventually developed the IPv6 standard.

The biggest differences betweenIPv4 and IPv6 is the structure of the addresses themselves. IPv4 is writtenusing 32 bits 192.168.

123.132, where IPv6 is written in hexadecimal as2001:0DB8:AC10:FE01:1030:0030:0001:0003, which is 128 bits of data. This allowsmore devices to use available IP addresses.

Both standards of IPs will have thesame function, they will provide a readable name for DNS to see that Google.comcan use both forms and still generate the same web page. Advantages of IPv6 over IPv4In 2018 there will be over 50 billion devices that areinternet capable, with only 4.3 billion available IPv4 address that is aproblem. IPv6 addressing scheme which uses 128 bit address will allow theavailable number of address to grow from 4.3 billion to a staggering 340undecillion plus. Written out that is340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456.

IPv6 will provide enoughIP addresses “for every atom on Earth, and still have enough addresses left todo another 100+ earths.” (Wigmore, 2009). IPv6 will soon become the standardfor domains to use, but for now IPv4 and IPv6 must coexist. IPv6 has amultitude of advantages over IPv4, most of which make IPv6 more secure, faster,and more flexible. Some other advantages include, No more Network AddressTranslation, no more private address collisions, better multicast routing, moreefficient routing, and easier administration. DNS will forever be changed whenusing IPv6 by replacing DNS extensions from IP6.

int to IP6.ARRPA this means themapping for looking up a domain name using IPv6. (Thomson, 2003). ConclusionIt is clear that since the beginning of the internet, it wasknown we needed a large number of available IP addresses. What was not knownwas how many would truly be needed by the year 2020.

Developing and adoptingIPv6 was the solution that will make way for enough IP addresses until the endof days. DNS has been utilized to help with this transition so that IPv4 andIPv6 can coexist and are compatible for use at the same time on multiple networks.