Sickle cell anemiaSickle cell anemia, also called sickle cell disease, is a genetic disease of the red blood cells. The disease causes abnormal oxygen – borne hemoglobin in red blood cells. In a given situation (usually a hypoxic condition), the red blood cell becomes a hard scythe. Sickle cell disease usually occurs between five and six months of age. Patients may have multiple health problems, such as sudden pain (sickle cell crisis, sickle cell crisis), anemia, bacterial infection and stroke. Chronic pain may occur when a patient is older. The average life expectancy in developed countries is 40 to 60 years. At present, there is no definite change in the genetic make-up of the individual, so the etiology treatment is meaningless. The purpose of treatment is to prevent hypoxia, dehydration and infection. Malaria and malaria treatment are used to relieve symptoms and reduce the complications of organ injury, promotes hematopoiesis and prolongs life. In sickle cell anemia, the smooth rearrangement of hemoglobin does not occur.As mentioned before, hemoglobin is a protein rich in iron.Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids.The type and sequence of amino acids determines the type of protein.Protein synthesis, or protein synthesis, is controlled by DNA.The code for creating proteins comes from the genes that carry each gene that is encoded, or the set of instructions that make a particular protein.Sickle cell anemia is caused by a genetic mutation that codes for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells.The gene is on chromosome 11.(Inherited diseases)In addition to anaemia, the clinical features also showed periodic pain crisis. The hypoxia caused by various causes causes more red blood cell sickle to cause severe complications such as multiple lung, kidney, liver and cerebral embolism. In addition to the corresponding symptoms, hematology, immunology, and hemorheology will change. In addition, it can affect the development of the nervous system and mental retardation. Sickle cell anemia early pathological changes of red blood cell damage of spleen make patients susceptible of cardiovascular system, especially the pneumococcus septicaemia and chlamydia pneumonia, acute chest syndrome in clinical and clinical characteristics of fever, cough, dyspnea, chest pain, X-ray mutation or infiltrative lung; antibiotics are also the leading cause of death in all age groups. Hemolysis causes bilirubin to heighten and appear jaundice, liver, gallstone. If a large amount of blood is left in the liver and spleen, there will be progressive enlargement of the liver and spleen and hypovolemic shock, also known as the delayed crisis or the reclusive syndrome. Due to small blood vessel occlusion, local tissue hypoxia and inflammatory response were reported, and the swelling and hyperemia of extremities and joints were described as extremities syndrome. 50% of children in the age of 2 have hand and foot syndrome. (Sickle cell anemia-Symptoms and causes)At present, there is no definite change in the genetic make-up of the individual, so the etiology treatment is meaningless. The purpose of treatment is to prevent hypoxia, dehydration and infection. Malaria and malaria treatment are used to relieve symptoms and reduce the complications of organ injury, promotes hematopoiesis and prolongs life. In severe cases, hydroxyurea can reduce the number of pain crises and the number of blood transfusions, as well as reduce the frequency of chest syndrome. This disease is mainly caused by the lack of oxygen, which causes the red blood cells to obstruct the capillaries and cause the pain crisis, and it is appropriate to use alternative medicine and vasodilators. Folic acid supplementation can reduce the level of cysteine and improve the function of vascular endothelium. There are also bone marrow transplant and fetal liver hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to save patients and improve the quality of life. The blood cells of the patients were isolated from the blood cells of the patients and the red blood cells of the blood donors were given a better effect. There is also an advocate for partial blood exchange and a 5% glucose drop to reduce blood viscosity. Small doses of double coumarin treatment can reduce the incidence of thrombosis in patients. Sickle cell signature is an inherited form of blood disease that affects about 8 percent of African americans. Patients with sickle cell disease, there are two causes of abnormal hemoglobin genes, sickle cell characteristic of individual only carry a faulty gene, normal life without sickle cell health problems. RefrenceInherited diseases, http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/biology/sickle-cell-anaemia.htmlSickle cell anemia-Symptoms and causes,By Mayo Clinic Staff,  https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sickle-cell-anemia/symptoms-causes/syc-20355876