Central Theme of Political Sociology Approach:
Political Sociology approach holds that the study of politics should essentially begin with the study of man and society. Politics can be really analysed as a process through which conflicts among men (groups and classes) get resolved and reconciled for securing a tolerable harmony among various interests.
Man is a social animal and he finds physical, psychological and spiritual fulfilment in the company of other men. However, each man has his own interests, needs and values. Because of these, he cannot live in society without conflict.
Conflict is an inescapable aspect of social relations. It naturally emerges in every society when two or more persons try to possess the same object, or to occupy the same space or the same exclusive position or to play incompatible roles or maintain incompatible goals, or adopt incompatible means for achieving their goals.
Conflict is natural and at the same time it has to be resolved for securing a tolerable harmony in society, because unresolved conflict can lead to anarchy and chaos.
Politics therefore, emerges naturally as a process of conflict-resolution through the making and implementation of binding laws, decisions, rewards, rules, decrees and the like. Politics has its roots in conflict and social relations. It can be, therefore, studied in terms of social relations.
Political Sociology Approach places emphasis upon the social context of politics and seeks to present an explanation of political behaviour of man in society.
Political behaviour is a dimension of social behaviour and hence its systematic study demands a study of its social context/social roots.
Evaluation of Political Sociology Approach:
Political Sociology Approach is a very useful and comprehensive approach. Sociological studies can be very helpful in understanding the true nature and behaviour of political institutions and processes.
Politics is a process of conflict-resolution through interest reconciliation on the basis of authoritative and binding values (Laws, Decisions and Rules) made and enforced by the political system for the whole society. Political System is the system of making and implementing authoritative values for the whole society.
Naturally its purpose is to serve the society. Politics, therefore, must have knowledge of society and as well as make and implement its authoritative values keeping in view the social values, problems, issues and needs.
Political Sociology Approach fully reflects the deep link between Political Science and Sociology. The study of sociological context of political behaviour/relations/ processes is, therefore always useful and essential for every student of politics.