Marquis Gilbert

12/7/2017                                                                                                                                                            History
of Civ2

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                                        Women’s
Inequality and the Feminist Movement in Turkey

At the end of the nineteenth
century during the rule of Ottoman Empire there had been much discrimination
Social change of gender inequality between men and women that had a major
effect in Turkey. The feminist movement had a key role in women’s equality that
fought to have better education, end poverty, and have legal rights. Being a
woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social
expectations such as gender roles. Culture is an important factor to define proper
roles for women and girls as well as shaping life and relationships of people (Turan).
 Social status of women define their interpersonal relationships, and
motherhood are some of the variables that determine social status. Gender plays
an important role in interpersonal relationships, interrelations between gender
typical traits and indicators of interpersonal relationships have frequently
been analyzed in formed studies (Turan). The social movements in Turkey that
occurred in the 1960’s and 1970’s however, were more focused on reconstructing
the Turkish state and society with socialist ideals in mind. Women in Turkey
are being treated unfairly based on gender and had started a women’s movement
to fight for gender inequality; Education, Domestic violence, and the feminist
movement of Istanbul are three major focused on want to speak about in Turkey
(Turan).

 

There have been a lot of
depression about women Domestic Violence. Domestic violence against women is a
significant social and public health problem resulting from unequal power
relationships between men and women. Most of the violence takes place in the
family and mainly against women. The fourth World Conference on Women in
Beijing in 1995 was about violence against women. Studies showed in late 1980’s
there have been 14.8% that have been exposed to physical violence, 7.9% to
sexual violence, 20.2% to emotional violence and abuse. Lastly, there have been
11.2% that have been economic abuse or violence during pregnancy (Sydney).
Women violence has a short and long negative effect on women’s health. Not only
does it leads to permanent damage to women’s health, but also causes them to
develop psychological behavior and physical problems. Such as alcohol abuse,
anxiety, suicidal behavior, unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted
diseases. Violence against women is important not only for women’s health, but
also in the promotion of public health (Sydney). If a women who took refuge in
a women’s shelter because she was subjected to violence from her husband was
killed by him. Honor killing or murder of women of disgraceful behavior
tarnishes the family honor, is not the only kind of violence that Turkish women
confront (Sydney). Also, it is one of the most cruel and severe human rights
violations. A women’s sexuality determines the status of the men who are
closely related to her. The men feel responsible for controlling their women’s
sexuality. When a women is unchaste, the male members of her family are shamed
and cannot look other members of the community in the eyes (Sydney). The women
is expected to commit suicide, restoring honor to her and her family. Sometimes
her family may cause her to commit suicide by imprisoning her, neglecting her
or poisoning her until she finally kills herself. The study results indicate
that crimes against women in Turkish cities is as common as it is in the rural
parts of the country. Women living under poor social economic conditions should
be prioritized for provincial service planning against domestic violence. The
results also indicate that public services for domestic violence victims should
be improved urgently (Sydney).  Even
though the impression of Domestic Violence had been a main aspect, Education is
another.

 

The lack of Education had been a
major concern for women in turkey.  Education is crucial to improve the social
circumstances of women and along with health and income level. It is one of the
basic indicators in Human Development, the first of which was published in
1990’s by United Nations Development Program (Noel Merino). In spite of the
developments in education in all parts of the world, education of women is
still a major problem in many parts of the world. Women still benefits less
from education opportunities and gender inequality still continue. However, the
majority of women in Turkey do not have the educational opportunities and this
has negative impacts on their employment of their place in politics, and also
decision making mechanisms (Noel Merino). In most of the cases, this
deprivation ends up with a kind of domestic violence to endure. For the bright
future of Turkey, forcing girls into marriage at a young age should be avoided
and all children should be given equal opportunities for access to contemporary
education. Despite the increasing awareness on the necessity of education of
women to ensure gender equality and the gaining attached. Such as the increase
in the alternative educational programs for women who need special protection,
the goals have not been fulfilled yet (Noel Merino). This failure to reach the
goals is because of insufficient sources, infrastructure problems and lack of a
strong political will in education. Women with less education and women who did
not arrange their marriage themselves agree significantly more with the gender
role statements than other women (Noel Merino). These results make clear that
the reproduction with women’s lower education, a traditional family background
and poverty. Women education status was also taken into consideration with
results showing that there was a significant difference in interpersonal
dimensions based on educational status (Noel Merino).  Education for women is one impression that
seen their needs, another impression is the Feminist movement.

 

The feminist movement has been
major concern that caused depression With Istanbul. The feminist movement
gradually became integrated into state polity, which inhibited its practice
outside the state. Women in Turkey were portrayed as emancipated and liberated,
however a larger discrepancy between formal rights and the social position of
women in Turkey. In 1987 feminists organized the first public protest against male
violence, and to expose the frequency of sexual harassment and violence against
women in the patriarchal society in Turkey (Evren KARATA?). During the same time
period, feminist movements fought against many laws that restricted the freedom
of women. Groups of women would go to court to divorce their husbands in a
symbolic gesture that criticized the concept of the patriarchal family. It is known that French Revolution in 1789 is
a turning point in respect to Women’s movements.

 

In Turkey from the Constitution Period it has
seen that women are more active in public area and they gain various rights. In
the acceleration of this process the effect of the Modernization is very big.
These developments in social area also affected the literary field. It is
possible to carry the concept of the female writers/poets to the centuries
before by considering the facts of anonymous tradition in folk literature and
the female poets in Divan Literature. However, it is also known that in Turkish
literature the female writers have been more active since 19th century
beginning from Mrs.Fatma Aliya (Evren KARATA?). After the proclamation of the Republic, the
number of the female writers in our literature has increased gradually together
with Halide Edip Advair and the female sensibility has started to be felt in
Turkish novel. By the time when the feminist movement makes its effects felt in
our country, as it is in the whole world, the female writers made a quantum
leap both in terms of quantity and quality.

 

Beginning from
that time, like their male colleagues, the female writers also had dealt with
social subjects, mainly the social disorders the country faced. After the
putsch in 1980, it is seen that the novel moves away from the social subjects (Evren KARATA?). When
the case is women writers, tending to individual issues make itself felt
especially in women context more distinctly. Days after 1990s, it is seen that
the postmodernist effects, which are effective in all over the world. Women in Turkey are being treated unfairly based on gender
and have started a women’s movement about gender inequality. Education, crimes
against women, and the feminist movement of Istanbul are effectively a big
problem and a major concern through history. The feminist movement had made a
major jump over the years and women are still fighting for their rights (Evren KARATA?).