Marquis Gilbert12/7/2017                                                                                                                                                            Historyof Civ2                                         Women’sInequality and the Feminist Movement in Turkey At the end of the nineteenthcentury during the rule of Ottoman Empire there had been much discriminationSocial change of gender inequality between men and women that had a majoreffect in Turkey.

The feminist movement had a key role in women’s equality thatfought to have better education, end poverty, and have legal rights. Being awoman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the socialexpectations such as gender roles. Culture is an important factor to define properroles for women and girls as well as shaping life and relationships of people (Turan). Social status of women define their interpersonal relationships, andmotherhood are some of the variables that determine social status. Gender playsan important role in interpersonal relationships, interrelations between gendertypical traits and indicators of interpersonal relationships have frequentlybeen analyzed in formed studies (Turan). The social movements in Turkey thatoccurred in the 1960’s and 1970’s however, were more focused on reconstructingthe Turkish state and society with socialist ideals in mind. Women in Turkeyare being treated unfairly based on gender and had started a women’s movementto fight for gender inequality; Education, Domestic violence, and the feministmovement of Istanbul are three major focused on want to speak about in Turkey(Turan). There have been a lot ofdepression about women Domestic Violence.

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Domestic violence against women is asignificant social and public health problem resulting from unequal powerrelationships between men and women. Most of the violence takes place in thefamily and mainly against women. The fourth World Conference on Women inBeijing in 1995 was about violence against women. Studies showed in late 1980’sthere have been 14.

8% that have been exposed to physical violence, 7.9% tosexual violence, 20.2% to emotional violence and abuse. Lastly, there have been11.2% that have been economic abuse or violence during pregnancy (Sydney).

Women violence has a short and long negative effect on women’s health. Not onlydoes it leads to permanent damage to women’s health, but also causes them todevelop psychological behavior and physical problems. Such as alcohol abuse,anxiety, suicidal behavior, unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitteddiseases. Violence against women is important not only for women’s health, butalso in the promotion of public health (Sydney). If a women who took refuge ina women’s shelter because she was subjected to violence from her husband waskilled by him. Honor killing or murder of women of disgraceful behaviortarnishes the family honor, is not the only kind of violence that Turkish womenconfront (Sydney). Also, it is one of the most cruel and severe human rightsviolations. A women’s sexuality determines the status of the men who areclosely related to her.

The men feel responsible for controlling their women’ssexuality. When a women is unchaste, the male members of her family are shamedand cannot look other members of the community in the eyes (Sydney). The womenis expected to commit suicide, restoring honor to her and her family. Sometimesher family may cause her to commit suicide by imprisoning her, neglecting heror poisoning her until she finally kills herself.

The study results indicatethat crimes against women in Turkish cities is as common as it is in the ruralparts of the country. Women living under poor social economic conditions shouldbe prioritized for provincial service planning against domestic violence. Theresults also indicate that public services for domestic violence victims shouldbe improved urgently (Sydney).  Eventhough the impression of Domestic Violence had been a main aspect, Education isanother. The lack of Education had been amajor concern for women in turkey.

 Education is crucial to improve the socialcircumstances of women and along with health and income level. It is one of thebasic indicators in Human Development, the first of which was published in1990’s by United Nations Development Program (Noel Merino). In spite of thedevelopments in education in all parts of the world, education of women isstill a major problem in many parts of the world. Women still benefits lessfrom education opportunities and gender inequality still continue.

However, themajority of women in Turkey do not have the educational opportunities and thishas negative impacts on their employment of their place in politics, and alsodecision making mechanisms (Noel Merino). In most of the cases, thisdeprivation ends up with a kind of domestic violence to endure. For the brightfuture of Turkey, forcing girls into marriage at a young age should be avoidedand all children should be given equal opportunities for access to contemporaryeducation. Despite the increasing awareness on the necessity of education ofwomen to ensure gender equality and the gaining attached. Such as the increasein the alternative educational programs for women who need special protection,the goals have not been fulfilled yet (Noel Merino). This failure to reach thegoals is because of insufficient sources, infrastructure problems and lack of astrong political will in education.

Women with less education and women who didnot arrange their marriage themselves agree significantly more with the genderrole statements than other women (Noel Merino). These results make clear thatthe reproduction with women’s lower education, a traditional family backgroundand poverty. Women education status was also taken into consideration withresults showing that there was a significant difference in interpersonaldimensions based on educational status (Noel Merino).  Education for women is one impression thatseen their needs, another impression is the Feminist movement.  The feminist movement has beenmajor concern that caused depression With Istanbul. The feminist movementgradually became integrated into state polity, which inhibited its practiceoutside the state. Women in Turkey were portrayed as emancipated and liberated,however a larger discrepancy between formal rights and the social position ofwomen in Turkey.

In 1987 feminists organized the first public protest against maleviolence, and to expose the frequency of sexual harassment and violence againstwomen in the patriarchal society in Turkey (Evren KARATA?). During the same timeperiod, feminist movements fought against many laws that restricted the freedomof women. Groups of women would go to court to divorce their husbands in asymbolic gesture that criticized the concept of the patriarchal family. It is known that French Revolution in 1789 isa turning point in respect to Women’s movements. In Turkey from the Constitution Period it hasseen that women are more active in public area and they gain various rights. Inthe acceleration of this process the effect of the Modernization is very big.These developments in social area also affected the literary field. It ispossible to carry the concept of the female writers/poets to the centuriesbefore by considering the facts of anonymous tradition in folk literature andthe female poets in Divan Literature.

However, it is also known that in Turkishliterature the female writers have been more active since 19th centurybeginning from Mrs.Fatma Aliya (Evren KARATA?). After the proclamation of the Republic, thenumber of the female writers in our literature has increased gradually togetherwith Halide Edip Advair and the female sensibility has started to be felt inTurkish novel. By the time when the feminist movement makes its effects felt inour country, as it is in the whole world, the female writers made a quantumleap both in terms of quantity and quality.  Beginning fromthat time, like their male colleagues, the female writers also had dealt withsocial subjects, mainly the social disorders the country faced.

After theputsch in 1980, it is seen that the novel moves away from the social subjects (Evren KARATA?). Whenthe case is women writers, tending to individual issues make itself feltespecially in women context more distinctly. Days after 1990s, it is seen thatthe postmodernist effects, which are effective in all over the world. Women in Turkey are being treated unfairly based on genderand have started a women’s movement about gender inequality.

Education, crimesagainst women, and the feminist movement of Istanbul are effectively a bigproblem and a major concern through history. The feminist movement had made amajor jump over the years and women are still fighting for their rights (Evren KARATA?).