Long term effects of alcoholDrinking alcohol is kind of drug addiction. Alcohol orethanol is the constituent in wine, beer, and spirits. Booze production takesplace through fermentation process which involves conversion of sugar intoethyl alcohol. Liquor affects various organs of the body and its effects are dependingupon different factors such as age, consumption of liquor.

In this essay I willdiscuss how alcohol affects biological system of the body.Ethyl alcohol is rapidly absorbed into bloodthrough stomach (smaller part of alcohol) and intestine (major part ofalcohol). Firstly, long term use of alcohol affects the lining ofgastrointestinal tract causes vomiting, diarrhoea, varices formation in oesophagusetc. Secondly, liver that is largest organ responsible for detoxification ofalcohol but chronic heavy alcohol lead to formation of chronic hepatic diseasessuch as hepatitis, hepatomegaly and fatty liver. These types of hepaticdisorder causes cirrhosis of liver that means liver cells are replaced by scartissue, which leads to liver failure. Thirdly, Pancreas which is also importantorgan of the digestive tract release insulin hormone and that helps inmaintaining the blood glucose levels but ethanol effect the function ofpancreas and cause acute and chronic inflammation of pancreas that is called pancreatitis.

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Finally, Intestines which play vital role in absorption of nutrients but heavy liquorinterrupt this absorption and cause cancer formation in gut.Alcohol also effect respiratory tract bycausing fluid accumulation in lungs which is called pneumonia. Alcohol makesthe lungs more sensitive to various types of bacterial infection such astuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  Ethanol slows down the working of alveoluswhich lead to infection and inflammation including more chances of bronchitisor asthma attack.

Moreover, the cardiovascular system is also affected by ethylalcohol due to development of cardiac disorder such as coronary heart disease,arrhythmia (abnormal rhythm of heart) etc. It causes rise in blood pressure andincrease the chances of heart attack by creating  more pressure on cardiac muscles.Further, alcohol affects the central and peripheralnervous system by causing neuropathy that includes sensory nerve damage(tingling, burning numbness) and motor nerve damage (movement disorder, musclecramps).

Furthermore, the renal function are also altered due to long termliquor intake by causing changes in the anatomy of renal. Alcohol altered theglomerular filtration rate through the formation of chronic kidney diseasewhich further leads to kidney failure. Besides this, alcohol affect the immunesystem of body by lowering the white blood cells count that reduce the power ofimmune system too fight with foreign particle (bacteria or virus). From this framework, alcohol can affect biological system depending on how much and often youconsume the liquor. Excess of everything is not good for health. It is betterto drink in sobriety. Drinking alcohol in moderate amount with meal and healthylife style curb the effect of alcohol on biological structures of the body.