Long term effects of alcohol

Drinking alcohol is kind of drug addiction. Alcohol or
ethanol is the constituent in wine, beer, and spirits. Booze production takes
place through fermentation process which involves conversion of sugar into
ethyl alcohol. Liquor affects various organs of the body and its effects are depending
upon different factors such as age, consumption of liquor. In this essay I will
discuss how alcohol affects biological system of the body.

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Ethyl alcohol is rapidly absorbed into blood
through stomach (smaller part of alcohol) and intestine (major part of
alcohol). Firstly, long term use of alcohol affects the lining of
gastrointestinal tract causes vomiting, diarrhoea, varices formation in oesophagus
etc. Secondly, liver that is largest organ responsible for detoxification of
alcohol but chronic heavy alcohol lead to formation of chronic hepatic diseases
such as hepatitis, hepatomegaly and fatty liver. These types of hepatic
disorder causes cirrhosis of liver that means liver cells are replaced by scar
tissue, which leads to liver failure. Thirdly, Pancreas which is also important
organ of the digestive tract release insulin hormone and that helps in
maintaining the blood glucose levels but ethanol effect the function of
pancreas and cause acute and chronic inflammation of pancreas that is called pancreatitis.
Finally, Intestines which play vital role in absorption of nutrients but heavy liquor
interrupt this absorption and cause cancer formation in gut.

Alcohol also effect respiratory tract by
causing fluid accumulation in lungs which is called pneumonia. Alcohol makes
the lungs more sensitive to various types of bacterial infection such as
tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  Ethanol slows down the working of alveolus
which lead to infection and inflammation including more chances of bronchitis
or asthma attack. Moreover, the cardiovascular system is also affected by ethyl
alcohol due to development of cardiac disorder such as coronary heart disease,
arrhythmia (abnormal rhythm of heart) etc. It causes rise in blood pressure and
increase the chances of heart attack by creating  more pressure on cardiac muscles.

Further, alcohol affects the central and peripheral
nervous system by causing neuropathy that includes sensory nerve damage
(tingling, burning numbness) and motor nerve damage (movement disorder, muscle
cramps). Furthermore, the renal function are also altered due to long term
liquor intake by causing changes in the anatomy of renal. Alcohol altered the
glomerular filtration rate through the formation of chronic kidney disease
which further leads to kidney failure. Besides this, alcohol affect the immune
system of body by lowering the white blood cells count that reduce the power of
immune system too fight with foreign particle (bacteria or virus).

From this framework, alcohol can affect biological system depending on how much and often you
consume the liquor. Excess of everything is not good for health. It is better
to drink in sobriety. Drinking alcohol in moderate amount with meal and healthy
life style curb the effect of alcohol on biological structures of the body.