Let’s see the reasons and consequences of these three issuesThe period of Ming dynasty between 1368 and 1644 has witnessed tremendous prosperity known as the golden age of China, but what are reasons for the peasant rebellion? The major cause to raise this rebellion was the weak government in Ming dynasty because of the succession of relatively weak and disconnected emperors where the early emperors were active administrators and military leaders. In the last periods of Mings rule shifting climate and disruptions in monsoon cycle of rains lead to huge rains causing floods in the yellow river which swamped farmer’s land and drowned their livestock. The government had a huge expense in men and money collected as tax in defending China from northern and western neighbours rather than development and even the tax policies were privatised with the laissez-faire by merchants, traders and investors which resulted higher tax for farmers and peasants and low for elitist merchants which need to be paid in silver.

Mings silver trade has changed the face of trade China, the silver was imported from all parts of the world when these supplies were cut off suddenly silver has become scarcity to the poor who need to pay taxes in silver. By the beginning of 1644, the desperately weekend Ming dynasty was in chaos and trying to hold on power. Meanwhile the other parts of China, the cycle of catastrophic floods followed by widespread famine convinced the people that their rulers had lost the Mandate of heaven and China need a new dynasty with this in the northern Shaanxi province, a minor Ming official called Li Zicheng gathered followers from the disenchanted peasantry by the rule of Mings and started peasant rebellion and lead this rebellion to capture the old capital of Ming dynasty Nanjing and declared himself the first emperor of the Shun dynasty. His armies marched east, capturing Taiyuan and heading toward Beijing, on April 24th Li Zichegn’s army broke through the city walls and captured Beijing, Chong Zhen the last emperor of Ming dynasty hanged himself from a tree behind the forbidden city, the new capital of Ming dynasty.

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It is witnessed that from the 7th century to late 15th century, Constantinople the capital of the great Roman Empire a symbol of imperial power, is the richest city in the world which is the centre of trade between Asia Europe also the centre of orthodox Christianity. The Ottoman empire during its extension of their territories to include Balkans, Anatolia, only Constantinople held out behind its supposedly impregnable finest fortress walls. It was attacked by Sultan Murad II in 1422 but he failed, later his successor Sultan Mehmed II, the emperor of ottomans since 1451, determined to capture Constantinople. In the late 15th century, when the emperor of Roman empire Constantine XI, Mehmed attacked Constantinople through artillery and canons, but it reminded highly difficult to capture by assault because of its formidable fort walls. In 1453 Mehmed again attacked through the seaways because most of the Constantinople was surrounded by sea but the seaway blocked by a large chain, Mehmed broke the chain and entered the harbour, but he was not able to cross the wall of the city. In his next attack he changed the war tactics and he took the Hungarian artillery expert to build the world’s largest most powerful cannon ever seen to batter the walls of city he targeted the cannon which takes 2 hours to load, at the same spot of the wall which created huge sound and people in city screaming with terror as if the earth was crumbled.

Finally, on 29th May, after 12 weeks of attack Mehmed entered the city and killed the emperor and remaining defenders, Blood flowed in the city like rainwater in the gutters after a sudden storm and bodies floated out to sea like melons along a canal, men were killed, women were raped, and children were made into slaves by the Ottoman Muslim army. With that the Roman empire came to end, Mehmed declared, the church should remain as Christian sanctuary and renamed the city as Istanbul as the heart of Ottoman empire. This fall of Constantinople has threatened the survival of Christianity in Europe which signalled the end of Byzantine empire in Europe, started to spread Islamism in Europe from Asia and east trade was no longer in the hands Christians. It had created a new era of warfare in the world.Babur’s victory in the battle of Panipat against Ibrahim Lodi in 1526 has a great importance in the history of India which marked the end of the Delhi Sultanate rule and laid the foundation for Mughal empire in India for almost 331 years. Till 1524 Babur’s aim was to capture Punjab to fulfil his ancestor Timur’s legacy, but due to the unstable political system in India gave him opportunity and support from local rulers to conquer India.

Daulat Kahn Lodi the governor of Punjab or Lahore invited Babur to help to overthrow Ibrahim Lodi and place Alam Kahn, uncle of Ibrahim Lodi on the throne to rule Punjab. When Babur came to know Daulat Kahn was driven out by forces of Ibrahim Lodi, he reached Punjab and marched on Lodi’s army and placed Alam Kahn as governor of Punjab. Frustrated Ibrahim declared a war on Babur, in the war field Babur tactics against his enemy despite low capacity army was the main reason for his defeat on Lodi. He arranged his army in the form of a chain with narrow gaps to shoot, by the time Lodi rearranged his forces, Babur got a chance to attack from all sides.

This is the first war in India which started using gunpowder, firearms, artillery etc. After the battle, Babur laid the foundation of a new dynasty and called himself as emperor!