Large percentages of
adolescents and emerging adults between the ages of 15-24 years, who fall under
the initial age for female reproduction in Africa as a whole, are increasingly
sexually active and at high risks of contracting STDs.
A daily estimate of
approximately 1500 children become HIV infected worldwide, of which more than
90% have been infected through Mother-To-Child Transmission (MTCT).
Awareness and Sexual Conducts amongst Adolescents
The level of awareness
about STDs and the variety of sexual risk conducts involved in by the youth in
Africa and other countries have been studied and recorded quite broadly.
Studies of this occurrences differs by concepts employed to describe levels of
awareness and by the variety of sexual risk conducts being studied. Several
frameworks have been construed in an endeavor to explain why specific variables
appear to affect sexual conducts equally positive and negative, and why
opposing stages of sexual conducts occur, separately.
The conglomeration of
these theoretical approaches into an integrated network has provided
researchers the ability to analyze data from overreaching variables affecting
adolescent sexual behavior and social phenomena as well as a provision of a
blueprint for future researchers, enabling them to further examine the effects
of proximal variables in different population subgroups (Guilamo-Ramos et al.,
Social learning theory is
based on the premise that behavior is imitated by observation and modeling or
mimicking and is influenced both cognitively and environmentally (Bandura &
McDonald, 1963). Oppositely, the theory of reasoned action assumes that
behavior is controlled by the intention to perform the behavior and is
influenced by personal attitudes and perceived societal norms (Busse, Fishbein,
Bleakley, & Hennessy, 2010). Correspondingly, subjective culture theory is
a theoretical approach framed by human intragroup interactions based on
beliefs, attitudes, norms, and roles within each respective group and how they
relate and interact with one another (Triandis & Malpass, 1970) and is similar
to self-regulation theory that defines human behavior as flexible and impressionable.
Self-regulation theory assumes that humans can control urges and subdue them at
will, and this can occur in line with social norms, ideals, and regulations in
hopes to achieve a more favorable response or behavior (Baumeister & Vohs,