Korean war : On July 1, part of the U.S. Army 24th Infantry Division
flew from Japan to Pusan, a city located at the southern tip of Korea. They were
the first American troops to reach Korea and other troops from other UN nations
began arriving in Korea shortly after the Americans.-
On July 1, part of the U.S. Army 24th Infantry Division flew from Japan to
Pusan, a city located at the southern tip of Korea. They were the first American
troops to reach Korea and other troops from other UN nations began arriving in
Korea shortly after the Americans.
On July 8, with the approval of the UN Security Council, Truman named General
MacArthur commander in chief of the United Nations Command. The command had
authority over all the Allies- South Koreans, Americans and the troops from
other UN countries. MacArthur directed allied operations from his headquarters
in Tokyo, Japan.
By August 2nd, the Communists had already captured the cities Seoul and
Taejon and pushed the Allies back to the Pusan Perimeter. The Pusan Perimeter
was a battle line in the southeast corner of South Korea. The victory had almost
gone to North Korea but through the help of reinforcements, the allies were able
to fight off the North Koreans in the advance. The North Koreans lost about
58,000 soldiers and much equipment in this area alone.
The decisive point that changed the course of the war was the Inchon landing.
On Sept. 15, 1950, marines and soldiers of the U.S. X Corps sailed from Japan to
Inchon, on the northwest coast of South Korea. General MacArthur personally
directed the surprise attack. It required extreme careful planning because the
tides at Inchon vary more than 30 feet. Each boat had to land at high tide
because any boat near the shore when the tide dropped would be trapped in the
mud. The troops who landed at Inchon cut off the North Koreans in the Pusan
Perimeter area from those north of Inchon. They fought fiercely and managed to
drive the North Koreans out. The troops then moved toward Seoul and took back
Seoul on September 26. MacArthur demanded surrender by the North Koreans but
they stubbornly rejected it.
Late in September, the Allies prepared to invade North Korea. South Korean
troops crossed into North Korea on October 1st and captured many coastal cities.
When the North Koreans were driven all the way back to the borders of China,
China warned against further advances toward its border. But General MacArthur,
hoping to end the war before winter set in, ordered the Allies to press on.
MacArthur and political leaders in Washington underestimated the size of the
Chinese armies. MacArthur believed the Allied forces outnumbered the Chinese and
that the Chinese would be used for defense only. He also thought that Allied air
power could prevent additional Chinese troops from entering North Korea. Allied
planes roamed the length of Korea, and Allied warships sailed unchallenged along
the coastlines, bombarding enemy ports. Everyone had confidence that the war
would be over by Christmas.
But hopes for a quick end to the war soon disappeared. China sent a huge
force against the Allies on November 26 and 27 and forced them to retreat.
Allies began to retreat starting on December 4 and by Christmas Eve, 105,000
U.S. and Korean troops, 91,000 refugees, and 17,500 vehicles had been evacuated
by sea from North Korea.
By March 14, the war had changed. The two sides dug in along a battle line
north of the 38th parallel and most of the battles were concentrated in these
areas. Truce talks began in July, but fighting continued for two more years.
Neither side made important advances, but they fought many bitter battles for
One of the most controversial events of the war took place on April 11, 1951,
when President Truman removed General MacArthur from command and replaced him
with Ridgway. The Presidents action resulted from a continuing dispute
between MacArthur and defense leaders in Washington as to how the Allies should
conduct the war. MacArthur wanted total victory by bombing bases in Manchuria,
China and use all-out-measures. Truman fearing such actions might lead to
a third World war, dismissed MacArthur as UN commander.
Many people were growing weary by this war and peace talks increased. Truce
talks began on July 10 at Kaesong and were moved to Panmunjom on October 25. A
settlement seemed near on November 27, when both sides agreed that the existing
battle line would be the final dividing line between North and South Korea if a
truce were reached within 30 days. But unfortunately, a truce was not reached
within the time limit mainly due to the issue of voluntary repatriation of
prisoners. The UN Command had insisted that prisoners of both sides be allowed
to choose whether or not they would return to their homelands. Many Chinese
prisoners of the Allies violently protested against a forced return to life
under Communism. The North Korean captives also refused to return home. The
Communists could not agree to the UN demand without admitting that Communism had
thus far failed to secure the loyalty of all its citizens.
By late April 1952, the truce talks were firmly deadlocked over voluntary
repatriation and fighting continued along the battle line. On October 8, the UN
Command adjourned the truce talk stating the talks would resume when the
Communists were ready to offer a helpful suggesting for settling the issue of
After Stalins death, Soviet leaders began talking of the need to settle
disputes peacefully. On March 28, the Communists accepted an earlier offer by
the UN Command for an exchange of sick and wounded prisoners. The Communists
also indicated that the truce talks should be resumed. The exchange took place
in April and May. The UN Command received 684 sick and wounded prisoners,
including 149 Americans. It returned 6,670 Communist prisoners.
The truce talks were resumed on April 26, and the Communists accepted
voluntary repatriation. They agreed to let prisoners indicate their choice to
the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, which consisted of
representatives of Czechoslovakia, India, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland.
An armistice agreement was signed on July 27, 1953, and the fighting ended. A
buffer zone, called the Demilitarized Zone, divided the two sides. It was 2.5
miles wide along the final battle line. South Korea gained about 1,500 square
miles of territory. Both sides agreed not to increase their military strength. A
Military Armistice Commission, with representatives from both sides, was set up
to enforce the armistice terms. The armistice also provided for a political
conference to work out a final settlement.
After the armistice was signed, each side charged the other with torture and
starvation of prisoners, and other war crimes. The North Koreans and Chinese
Communists were also accused of brainwashing prisoners. The UN General Assembly
adopted a general resolution condemning such acts.
The United States spent about $67 billion on the war. Almost all parts of
Korea were heavily damaged. About 1 million civilians were killed in South
Korea, and property damage was estimated at more than $1 billion. Statistics for
civilian deaths and damage in North Korea are unknown because they were not
The UN Command and the Communists completed an exchange of 88,539 prisoners
in September 1953. The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission took custody
of prisoners who refused to return to their homelands. The armistice provided
that delegates from the various countries could visit these prisoners and try to
persuade them to go home. But 14,227 Chinese, 7,825 North Koreans, 325 South
Koreans, 21 Americans, and 1 British prisoner refused to return.
In 1954, Soviet officials and representatives of countries that had fought in
Korea met in Geneva, Switzerland. But the negotiators failed to draw up a
permanent peace plan and they were unable to settle the question of unifying
Korea. A permanent peace treaty has never been signed.-Caridi, Ronald J. The
Korean War and American Politics: The Republican Party as a Case Study.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1968.
-Cummings, Bruce. Origins of the Korean War. Prince University Press, 1981.
-Truman, Harry S. Years of Trial and Hope. Doubleday, 1956.