to Menopause:

Menopause is the stage in every female’s life when their
period stops, and they become unable to get pregnant naturally. When Menopause
occurs, periods become less frequent and start to get lighter over a few months
or years. However, in some cases females may have no periods at all.

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Women between 45 and 55 will experience a decline in their
Oestrogen levels. This is because Menopause has occurred. The average age for
menopause to occur to a woman in the United Kingdom is 51 years according to
the NHS. Nevertheless, some women experience menopause when they are 40 years
of age. This is a condition called premature menopause or premature ovarian

The causes of

Menopause is initiated because of the imbalance of a female’s
sex hormones. This is due to the decline in Oestrogen production and the
release of an egg each month.

Symptoms of Menopause:

Menopause can affect each female differently. Nevertheless, most
women will experience menopausal symptoms in some way. Some of the symptoms

ü  Hot flushes: Sudden feelings of heat which
makes your skin red and sweaty

ü  Night sweats: Hot flushes occurring during the

ü  Vaginal dryness: itching and discomfort during sex

ü  Difficulty sleeping: Causing you to feel tired
during the day

ü  Low mood

ü  Reduced sex drive

ü  Problems with memory and concentration

ü  Reduced muscle mass

ü  Urinary tract infections such as Cystitis

ü  Stiffness, aches and pains

ü  Headaches

ü  Palpitations: Heartbeats becoming more noticeable

Menopausal symptoms have been said to last up to 4 years
after your last period. On the odd occasion, 1 in 10 women experience the
symptoms for up to 12 years.

Menopausal symptoms:

option 1: Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy was introduced in the early 2000s.
HRT relates to taking Oestrogen supplements to help with your body’s own levels.
This is because Menopause causes a female’s oestrogen levels to decline around
the time of Menopause.


HRT can be
either Combined or Oestrogen only:

1. Combined HRT:
This is the combination of the hormones Progesterone and Oestrogen. This is
offered to women who still have their womb.

2. Oestrogen-only-HRT:
This is offered to women who have had their womb removed.

HRT is a treatment that can be used in many different forms.
The forms include tablets, skin patches and implants. HRT is most commonly used
to relieve Menopausal symptoms for example hot flushes. However, HRT can be
dangerous because it is linked to blood clots and breast cancer.

option 2: For helping with hot flushes and night sweats:

There are many solutions to deal with hot flushes and night
sweats such as:

1.      Having a cold

2.      Having a cold

3.      Keeping
your body fit and healthy

4.      Using HRT

option 3: Dealing with mood changes:

During Menopause many women may find it difficult to keep a
positive mind set. Without using medication, women can use self-help measures
such as taking regular exercise, eating healthily, getting plenty of sleep and
participating in fun activities. However, if self-help isn’t effective enough
medication is offered to some women.

Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is therapy offered to
women who find it difficult to deal with their mood changes. This therapy
offers help to deal with depression and anxiety.

option 4: Helping women with a reduced sex desire:

Some women may struggle with a reduced sex desire. This is due
to a decline in their hormone levels. To help with this, HRT can be offered. As
well as this, a testosterone supplement can be offered to some women because it
is a hormone used to restore a woman’s sex desire.

option 5: Helping women who have weak bones:

There are many different methods to help women who have weak
bones when going through menopause:

ü  Taking HRT:
Prevent Osteoporosis

ü  Regular
exercise: To build up muscle, making your bones fit and healthy

ü  Healthy
diet: Giving you sources of calcium and protein

ü  Sunlight:
Vitamin D helps keep your bones strong

ü  Calcium and
Vitamin D supplements: To help build up the strength in your bones



Treatment option 6: Treating
Premature menopause:

Premature Menopause is when menopause occurs before 40 in
women. HRT and a combined contraceptive pill can be used to treat premature
menopause because they both contain oestrogen and progesterone.












to Erectile Dysfunction

 Erectile Dysfunction
is also known as impotence. Erectile Dysfunction is when males are unable to
maintain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. This is a problem that
frequently effects men who are over 40 according to the NHS.

The causes
of Erection problems:

Men may fail to maintain an erection due to reasons such as
anxiety and tiredness.

for different Erection problems:

Cause 1:

Narrowed penis blood vessels, high blood pressure or high


Medication can be offered to lower the blood pressure and
high cholesterol.

Cause 2:

Hormone problems.


To deal with hormone problems, Hormone replacement can be
offered. For example, Testosterone supplements.

Cause 3:

Emotional problems.


To deal with emotional problems, the male can be referred by
a doctor to receive CBT (Cognitive behavioural therapy). By doing this the male
will receive help to deal with their feelings.

Cause 4:

Limited blood flow.


Limited blood flow will allow the male to experience great
difficulty maintaining an erection. Using a vacuum pump increases blood flow,
therefore will help the male maintain an erection.


Dysfunction can also be helped by changing your lifestyle in different ways
such as making sure you have a healthy BMI, exercising regularly and not drinking
more than 14 units of alcohol a week.













to Infertility:

Infertility is the inability to conceive children or young.
Many couples find it difficult to produce children.

The statistics have been
used in accordance to the NHS website.

1 in 7 couples is said to have difficulty conceiving. This is
approximately 3.5 million people in the United Kingdom.

has two main types:

Infertility: Where a couple have not conceived a child in the past have
difficulty conceiving.

Infertility: Where a couple have had 1 or more children in the past but
find it difficult to conceive.


The causes
of Infertility:

There are many causes of infertility. However, if someone is
infertile it is difficult to suggest what has caused it.

Risk factors involved
in the infertility in males and females:

1.      Age: Fertility
declines with age. At the age of 30 and above, the fertility for males and
females is at its lowest.

2.      Weight: Being overweight or underweight decreases fertility. Having
a BMI between 18.5 and 25 is when males and females are most fertile.

3.      Smoking: If women smoke, it affects their chance of conceiving and if
men smoke it reduces the quality of their semen.

4.      Alcohol: Males and females should not drink more than 14 units of
alcohol a week. This allows both sexes to be at their most fertile.

5.      Stress: Stress can cause a reduced sex drive which may cause
ovulation and sperm production to decline.


in women:

Infertility in women is usually caused by ovulation problems.
This is because an egg stops being released therefore the couple cannot
conceive. There are many reasons why Ovulation problems can occur. This can be
due to many different conditions.





1: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS):

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is when the ovaries contain many
harmless follicles. The follicles are sacs which are not fully developed. Due
to the sacs not being fully developed, they are unable to release an egg. This
stops ovulation.

A female would know if they had Polycystic Ovary syndrome because
they would suffer from symptoms such as irregular periods ad oily skin.

There are ways to treat Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. For
instance, losing weight, eating healthily and doing regular exercise. As well
as these, females can take medication to treat symptoms such as irregular

2: Thyroid problems

An overactive thyroid gland and underactive thyroid gland can
prevent ovulation. An overactive thyroid gland is where the thyroid produces
too many thyroid hormones. The NHS have said that this is 10 times more common
in women than men.

The causes
of an overactive thyroid include:

Graves’ disease and lumps on the thyroid. These are the two
main causes of an overactive thyroid. Graves’ disease is dangerous because it
Is when the immune system attacks and damages the thyroid.

Having an Overactive thyroid can give someone dangerous
symptoms. Some of the symptoms
include tiredness, anxiety and weight loss.

 The treatments for an overactive thyroid

There are ways to treat an overactive thyroid. Treatments
such as medication and surgery are used to help reduce the number of hormones
that the thyroid produces. by successfully doing this, the thyroid has an
increased chance of returning to normal. The last treatment that can be recommended
to treat an overactive thyroid is Radioiodine treatment. This is used to
potentially harm the thyroid causing it to stop producing too many hormones.

Underactive thyroid:

An underactive thyroid is the opposite of an overactive
thyroid. Therefore, this means the thyroid does not produce enough hormones. The
causes of an underactive thyroid can be due to the attacking from the immune
system or the thyroid being damaged. An underactive thyroid can be treated by
taking daily hormone tablets to replace the hormones that are not being

3: Premature Ovarian failure:

This is a condition where a woman’s ovaries stop working
before the age of 40.



4: Cervical mucus problems:

During Ovulation, the mucus found in a female’s cervix becomes
thinner therefore sperm can swim through it easier. However, if the mucus is
thick and has problems, it makes it more difficult to conceive.

5: Fibroids:

A Fibroid is known as a non-cancerous growth. Fibroids are
found inside or around the womb. They can disrupt fertility because they can
block the fallopian tube or prevent growth of a fertilised egg.

6: Endometriosis:

Endometriosis is a condition where parts of the womb lining
grow on other areas in the body for example on the fallopian tubes. This is a
problem because it can cause damage to the fallopian tubes which causes
infertility problems.

7: Pelvic Inflammatory disease:

Pelvic Inflammatory disease is a sexually transmitted infection
causing harm to the female reproductive organs known as the womb, fallopian
tubes and ovaries. Therefore, females find it difficult to conceive.


in men:

Infertility in men is associated to the quality of the semen.
Poor semen will make it difficult for a couple to conceive because there will
be a low sperm count and the sperm will find It tough to swim to the egg.

There are
many different conditions that affect infertility in men.

1: Testicles:

The function of the testicles in males is to produce and
store semen. If the testicles were to become damaged, the quality of the semen
can be affected. Testicles can become damaged due to various reasons as simple
as an infection to a huge, problematic illness like cancer.

2: Sterilisation:

Some men may become sterilised. Men become sterilised to stop
females becoming pregnant. Sterilisation is successful because this procedure
stops the semen from carrying any sperm.

3: Ejaculation disorders:

If a male is suffering from an ejaculation disorder, then it
will be more difficult to conceive because it will be harder for semen to be
released during sexual intercourse.



4: Hypogonadism:

Hypogonadism is a condition where the testosterone levels are
unusually low. Unusually low testosterone levels can be caused by factors such
as a tumour or alcohol.

 Condition 5: Medicines and Drugs:

infertility can be affected by the medicines and drugs listed below:

Sulfasalazine: This drug
decreases the number of sperm produced. The sperm level increases when the drug
is not taken.

steroids: These steroids are used to illegally build muscle and
improve athletic performance. The use of these steroids reduces sperm count and
sperm mobility.

Chemotherapy: The use of
chemotherapy can reduce sperm production.

remedies: Herbal remedies such as root extracts can reduce the
production of sperm and the size of a male’s testicles.




to methods of Fertility

In many cases, couples find it difficult to conceive. This
could be due to several different reasons. Over a period, treatments have
improved to help couples conceive. There are multiple ways couples can now

The three
main types of Fertility treatment include:





The Medication listed below is prescribed to males and
females. By prescribing this medication, it increases the chance for a couple
to conceive. There are several types of medication that can be prescribed
because they all play different roles depending on the reason to why the couple
are having difficulty conceiving.

There are three types of medication that can be prescribed to
encourage fertility in women. Clomiphene and Tamoxifen are two different
medications that are prescribed to boost ovulation. The last type of medication
is called Metformin. Metformin is a medication that is useful for women
suffering with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.


However, Gonadotrophins are a type of medication that
benefits both females and males. This medication is given to females to
encourage ovulation. It is also given to males to boost their sperm count. Due
to this, both males and females benefit because they have a higher chance of
becoming fertile.


Surgical Procedures are used to investigate infertility
problems. Nurses and doctors can use advanced technology to carry out multiple
different surgeries to help couples who are infertile.

Tube Surgery:

Fallopian Tube surgery is recommended to women who have
blocked fallopian tubes. The blocking of the fallopian tubes may have become
apparent due to the build-up of scar tissue which can be removed during
surgery. When the scar tissue has been successfully removed the eggs will
easily be able to travel down the fallopian tubes.

for a blocked Epididymis

Some males will have difficulty with a blocked Epididymis.
Having a blocked Epididymis will prevent sperm being ejaculated normally.
Therefore, this can be the main cause of a male’s infertility. However, sperm
can be extracted to help the male become fertile. Having sperm extracted also
enables some sperm to be frozen. This means if the problem continues, the sperm
can be stored if needed for another time.