Introductionto Menopause:Menopause is the stage in every female’s life when theirperiod stops, and they become unable to get pregnant naturally. When Menopauseoccurs, periods become less frequent and start to get lighter over a few monthsor years. However, in some cases females may have no periods at all.Women between 45 and 55 will experience a decline in theirOestrogen levels.

This is because Menopause has occurred. The average age formenopause to occur to a woman in the United Kingdom is 51 years according tothe NHS. Nevertheless, some women experience menopause when they are 40 yearsof age. This is a condition called premature menopause or premature ovarianinsufficiency.The causes ofMenopause:Menopause is initiated because of the imbalance of a female’ssex hormones. This is due to the decline in Oestrogen production and therelease of an egg each month. TheSymptoms of Menopause:Menopause can affect each female differently.

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Nevertheless, mostwomen will experience menopausal symptoms in some way. Some of the symptomsinclude:ü  Hot flushes: Sudden feelings of heat whichmakes your skin red and sweaty ü  Night sweats: Hot flushes occurring during thenightü  Vaginal dryness: itching and discomfort during sexü  Difficulty sleeping: Causing you to feel tiredduring the dayü  Low moodü  Reduced sex drive ü  Problems with memory and concentrationü  Reduced muscle massü  Urinary tract infections such as Cystitis ü  Stiffness, aches and painsü  Headachesü  Palpitations: Heartbeats becoming more noticeableMenopausal symptoms have been said to last up to 4 yearsafter your last period. On the odd occasion, 1 in 10 women experience thesymptoms for up to 12 years.

TreatingMenopausal symptoms:Treatmentoption 1: Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)Hormone replacement therapy was introduced in the early 2000s.HRT relates to taking Oestrogen supplements to help with your body’s own levels.This is because Menopause causes a female’s oestrogen levels to decline aroundthe time of Menopause.  HRT can beeither Combined or Oestrogen only:1. Combined HRT:This is the combination of the hormones Progesterone and Oestrogen. This isoffered to women who still have their womb.2.

Oestrogen-only-HRT:This is offered to women who have had their womb removed.HRT is a treatment that can be used in many different forms.The forms include tablets, skin patches and implants. HRT is most commonly usedto relieve Menopausal symptoms for example hot flushes.

However, HRT can bedangerous because it is linked to blood clots and breast cancer.Treatmentoption 2: For helping with hot flushes and night sweats:There are many solutions to deal with hot flushes and nightsweats such as:1.      Having a coldbedroom2.      Having a coldshower3.      Keepingyour body fit and healthy4.

      Using HRTTreatmentoption 3: Dealing with mood changes:During Menopause many women may find it difficult to keep apositive mind set. Without using medication, women can use self-help measuressuch as taking regular exercise, eating healthily, getting plenty of sleep andparticipating in fun activities. However, if self-help isn’t effective enoughmedication is offered to some women. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is therapy offered towomen who find it difficult to deal with their mood changes.

This therapyoffers help to deal with depression and anxiety. Treatmentoption 4: Helping women with a reduced sex desire:Some women may struggle with a reduced sex desire. This is dueto a decline in their hormone levels.

To help with this, HRT can be offered. Aswell as this, a testosterone supplement can be offered to some women because itis a hormone used to restore a woman’s sex desire.Treatmentoption 5: Helping women who have weak bones:There are many different methods to help women who have weakbones when going through menopause:ü  Taking HRT:Prevent Osteoporosisü  Regularexercise: To build up muscle, making your bones fit and healthyü  Healthydiet: Giving you sources of calcium and protein ü  Sunlight:Vitamin D helps keep your bones strong ü  Calcium andVitamin D supplements: To help build up the strength in your bones  Treatment option 6: TreatingPremature menopause:Premature Menopause is when menopause occurs before 40 inwomen. HRT and a combined contraceptive pill can be used to treat prematuremenopause because they both contain oestrogen and progesterone.Reference: https://www. Picture:        Introductionto Erectile Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunctionis also known as impotence. Erectile Dysfunction is when males are unable tomaintain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. This is a problem thatfrequently effects men who are over 40 according to the NHS.The causesof Erection problems:Men may fail to maintain an erection due to reasons such asanxiety and tiredness.

Treatmentfor different Erection problems:Cause 1:Narrowed penis blood vessels, high blood pressure or highcholesterol.Treatment: Medication can be offered to lower the blood pressure andhigh cholesterol. Cause 2: Hormone problems. Treatment:To deal with hormone problems, Hormone replacement can beoffered. For example, Testosterone supplements.Cause 3:Emotional problems. Treatment:To deal with emotional problems, the male can be referred bya doctor to receive CBT (Cognitive behavioural therapy). By doing this the malewill receive help to deal with their feelings.

Cause 4: Limited blood flow.Treatment:Limited blood flow will allow the male to experience greatdifficulty maintaining an erection. Using a vacuum pump increases blood flow,therefore will help the male maintain an erection. ErectileDysfunction can also be helped by changing your lifestyle in different wayssuch as making sure you have a healthy BMI, exercising regularly and not drinkingmore than 14 units of alcohol a week. Reference: https://www. Picture:         Introductionto Infertility:Infertility is the inability to conceive children or young.

Many couples find it difficult to produce children.Statistics:The statistics have beenused in accordance to the NHS website.1 in 7 couples is said to have difficulty conceiving. This isapproximately 3.5 million people in the United Kingdom.Infertilityhas two main types:PrimaryInfertility: Where a couple have not conceived a child in the past havedifficulty conceiving.SecondaryInfertility: Where a couple have had 1 or more children in the past butfind it difficult to conceive.

 The causesof Infertility:There are many causes of infertility. However, if someone isinfertile it is difficult to suggest what has caused it.Risk factors involvedin the infertility in males and females:1.      Age: Fertilitydeclines with age. At the age of 30 and above, the fertility for males andfemales is at its lowest.

2.      Weight: Being overweight or underweight decreases fertility. Havinga BMI between 18.5 and 25 is when males and females are most fertile.3.

      Smoking: If women smoke, it affects their chance of conceiving and ifmen smoke it reduces the quality of their semen. 4.      Alcohol: Males and females should not drink more than 14 units ofalcohol a week. This allows both sexes to be at their most fertile.5.      Stress: Stress can cause a reduced sex drive which may causeovulation and sperm production to decline.

 Infertilityin women:Infertility in women is usually caused by ovulation problems.This is because an egg stops being released therefore the couple cannotconceive. There are many reasons why Ovulation problems can occur. This can bedue to many different conditions.    Condition1: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is when the ovaries contain manyharmless follicles. The follicles are sacs which are not fully developed.

Dueto the sacs not being fully developed, they are unable to release an egg. Thisstops ovulation. A female would know if they had Polycystic Ovary syndrome becausethey would suffer from symptoms such as irregular periods ad oily skin. There are ways to treat Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Forinstance, losing weight, eating healthily and doing regular exercise.

As wellas these, females can take medication to treat symptoms such as irregularperiods. Condition2: Thyroid problems An overactive thyroid gland and underactive thyroid gland canprevent ovulation. An overactive thyroid gland is where the thyroid producestoo many thyroid hormones. The NHS have said that this is 10 times more commonin women than men.The causesof an overactive thyroid include:Graves’ disease and lumps on the thyroid. These are the twomain causes of an overactive thyroid.

Graves’ disease is dangerous because itIs when the immune system attacks and damages the thyroid.Having an Overactive thyroid can give someone dangeroussymptoms. Some of the symptomsinclude tiredness, anxiety and weight loss. The treatments for an overactive thyroidinclude:There are ways to treat an overactive thyroid. Treatmentssuch as medication and surgery are used to help reduce the number of hormonesthat the thyroid produces. by successfully doing this, the thyroid has anincreased chance of returning to normal. The last treatment that can be recommendedto treat an overactive thyroid is Radioiodine treatment. This is used topotentially harm the thyroid causing it to stop producing too many hormones.

AnUnderactive thyroid:An underactive thyroid is the opposite of an overactivethyroid. Therefore, this means the thyroid does not produce enough hormones. Thecauses of an underactive thyroid can be due to the attacking from the immunesystem or the thyroid being damaged. An underactive thyroid can be treated bytaking daily hormone tablets to replace the hormones that are not beingproduced.Condition3: Premature Ovarian failure:This is a condition where a woman’s ovaries stop workingbefore the age of 40.  Condition4: Cervical mucus problems:During Ovulation, the mucus found in a female’s cervix becomesthinner therefore sperm can swim through it easier. However, if the mucus isthick and has problems, it makes it more difficult to conceive.

Condition5: Fibroids:A Fibroid is known as a non-cancerous growth. Fibroids arefound inside or around the womb. They can disrupt fertility because they canblock the fallopian tube or prevent growth of a fertilised egg.

Condition6: Endometriosis:Endometriosis is a condition where parts of the womb lininggrow on other areas in the body for example on the fallopian tubes. This is aproblem because it can cause damage to the fallopian tubes which causesinfertility problems.Condition7: Pelvic Inflammatory disease:Pelvic Inflammatory disease is a sexually transmitted infectioncausing harm to the female reproductive organs known as the womb, fallopiantubes and ovaries. Therefore, females find it difficult to conceive.  Infertilityin men:Infertility in men is associated to the quality of the semen.Poor semen will make it difficult for a couple to conceive because there willbe a low sperm count and the sperm will find It tough to swim to the egg. There aremany different conditions that affect infertility in men.Condition1: Testicles:The function of the testicles in males is to produce andstore semen.

If the testicles were to become damaged, the quality of the semencan be affected. Testicles can become damaged due to various reasons as simpleas an infection to a huge, problematic illness like cancer.Condition2: Sterilisation:Some men may become sterilised.

Men become sterilised to stopfemales becoming pregnant. Sterilisation is successful because this procedurestops the semen from carrying any sperm.Condition3: Ejaculation disorders:If a male is suffering from an ejaculation disorder, then itwill be more difficult to conceive because it will be harder for semen to bereleased during sexual intercourse.  Condition4: Hypogonadism:Hypogonadism is a condition where the testosterone levels areunusually low. Unusually low testosterone levels can be caused by factors suchas a tumour or alcohol. Condition 5: Medicines and Drugs:Maleinfertility can be affected by the medicines and drugs listed below:Sulfasalazine: This drugdecreases the number of sperm produced.

The sperm level increases when the drugis not taken.Anabolicsteroids: These steroids are used to illegally build muscle andimprove athletic performance. The use of these steroids reduces sperm count andsperm mobility.

Chemotherapy: The use ofchemotherapy can reduce sperm production.Herbalremedies: Herbal remedies such as root extracts can reduce theproduction of sperm and the size of a male’s testicles. Reference: https://www.nhs.

uk/conditions/infertility/causes/ Introductionto methods of FertilityIn many cases, couples find it difficult to conceive. Thiscould be due to several different reasons. Over a period, treatments haveimproved to help couples conceive. There are multiple ways couples can nowconceive.

The threemain types of Fertility treatment include:-         Medicines –         SurgicalProcedures –         AssistedConceptionMedicines The Medication listed below is prescribed to males andfemales. By prescribing this medication, it increases the chance for a coupleto conceive. There are several types of medication that can be prescribedbecause they all play different roles depending on the reason to why the coupleare having difficulty conceiving.There are three types of medication that can be prescribed toencourage fertility in women. Clomiphene and Tamoxifen are two differentmedications that are prescribed to boost ovulation.

The last type of medicationis called Metformin. Metformin is a medication that is useful for womensuffering with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.  However, Gonadotrophins are a type of medication thatbenefits both females and males. This medication is given to females toencourage ovulation.

It is also given to males to boost their sperm count. Dueto this, both males and females benefit because they have a higher chance ofbecoming fertile.SurgicalProcedures:Surgical Procedures are used to investigate infertilityproblems. Nurses and doctors can use advanced technology to carry out multipledifferent surgeries to help couples who are infertile.

FallopianTube Surgery:Fallopian Tube surgery is recommended to women who haveblocked fallopian tubes. The blocking of the fallopian tubes may have becomeapparent due to the build-up of scar tissue which can be removed duringsurgery. When the scar tissue has been successfully removed the eggs willeasily be able to travel down the fallopian tubes.Procedurefor a blocked EpididymisSome males will have difficulty with a blocked Epididymis.Having a blocked Epididymis will prevent sperm being ejaculated normally.

Therefore, this can be the main cause of a male’s infertility. However, spermcan be extracted to help the male become fertile. Having sperm extracted alsoenables some sperm to be frozen.

This means if the problem continues, the spermcan be stored if needed for another time.