INTERPRETATIONOF EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN GAS RESOURCES AND ENERGY SAFETYToday, with theincrease in the world population, people and countries are increasinglyconsuming and increasing production and product troubles. Such is the gasreserves which are the largest and most important sources of politicalstrategies and causes of war between the consuming and needing instruments andeven the countries. This situation is very important in terms of the politicaland economic location of the countries in the world.Eastern Mediterraneancountries have an important place in the gas resources. Is the easternMediterranean countries in a position to meet this situation in the world thatcan not catch up with the concept of consumerism in terms of energy security?Let’s try to find some answers to this situation.Whereis the East Mediterranean?Lebanon, Syria, Israel,Egypt, and Cyprus are Eastern Mediterranean countries.
the remaining countriesin the south and southeast Turkey on their behalf so that they have alsoaffects the strategic importance of Turkey in this regard. The question of howthe energy future of these countries, which have an important place in gasreserves, will be the subject of great curiosity. Whatis the future of East Mediterranean gas resources?The easternMediterranean region, with its recent natural gas discoveries, has revealed itspotential for resource. This was the case for attracting the attention of theworld’s leading energy companies. These developments in the Eastern Mediterraneanonce again revealed the value of energy resources.
It is obvious that energyreserves are causing tension between countries. In this respect, energy forreserve-holders in the region has the potential to solve the problems betweenthe countries and the cooperation and commercial activities to be carried out.However, sometimes this leads to increased debate. such as the Palestinianissue, the Cyprus issue and the problems in the region of Egypt. Today, whilethese problems in the region have not been solved, the current discussions withthe explored energy sources continue increasingly.
Recently, zohr in Egypt,aphrodite in Cyprus and tamar and leviathan reveres in Israel will play animportant role in the political and commercial future of the countries.Whatare the resources that have been recently found in the Eastern Mediterranean?The easternMediterranean is the Middle East geographical region which contains 47% ofworld-proven oil reserves and 43% of natural gas reserves; It is the gateway tothe Mediterranean, the Aegean, the Black Sea, the Red Sea and the Atlantic(Kandemir, 2013). Recently, in the eastern Mediterranean, zohr, corn aprodite,and tamar and leviathan reverbs found in israel have been discovered recently.The Zohr natural gasfield, located in Egyptian territorial waters and believed to have the world’slargest reserves, will start natural gas production by the end of the year.Consequently; Egyptian Petroleum Minister Tarik Molla said that Egypt willstart to produce natural gas in the Mediterranean by the end of this year, andZohr natural gas bed will have 850 billion cubic meters of gas reserves, whichwill be 28 million cubic meters per day. The Zohr has 60 per cent of theItalian oil company Eni, 30 per cent of Russian Rosneft and 10 per cent ofBritish BP. Eni discovered Zohr, the largest gas field in the Mediterranean, inAugust 2015. In other words, it is estimated that there are about 850 billioncubic meters of natural gas in the area.
(enerjigunlugu.net,2017)”Aphrodite gasfield is an offshore gas field off the southern coast of Cyprus located at the exploratorydrilling block 12 inthe country’s maritime ExclusiveEconomic Zone. Located 34kilometres (21 mi) west of Israel’s Leviathan gasfield, block 12 is believed tohold 3.6 to 6 trillion cubic feet (100×109 to 170×109 m3)of natural gas ” (Cyprus Gas News,2013;Hadjicostis,2011). The Aphrodite gas field can stimulatethe local economy against rising unemployment for the Cypriot population.According to Noble Energy, there is a total gross oil potential of 3.3 billionbarrels (590 × 106 m3).
” The field has a gross mean average of7 trillion cubic feet (200 billion cubic metres) of natural gas withan estimated gross resource range of 5–8 trillion cubic feet (140×109–230×109 m3)oldu?u belirtilmi?tir” (Marshall, Steve,2011;Cyprusmail,2011).Israeli Prime MinisterBenyamin Netanyahu told the opening ceremony of the tamar and leviathan gasreserves in Israel, saying that “Israel has made a significant steptowards energy independence” and Energy Minister Silvan Shalom said”they are witnessing a historic event”. Also; It has been stated thatIsraeli experts have been working on decades of oil exploration efforts and in1999 discovered a natural gas reserve on the shores of Ashdod port. FollowingAshdod, it is estimated that there are 238 billion cubic meters of natural gasat 5 thousand meters depth in Tamar deposits on Hayfa openings and 450 billioncubic meters of natural gas in Leviathan natural gas reserve which isconsidered as the biggest natural gas reserve of the world.
Looking at thesesources, it is observed that countries have taken important steps in energysecurity. Also; it becomes clear that the resources will lead to thestrengthening of the hands in the political and commercial issues between thecountries.Whatare the potential export routes?Along with the recentlydiscovered gas resources, East Mediterranean is seen to be an important pointin the gas trade. This situation strengthens the hands of eastern mediterraneancountries in terms of trade. New export routes are expected to emerge in thisregion where large gas companies are starting to compete. Such that;”Israel can not compete with the US shale gas. But it can compete withAzeri gas. There is a picture of the EU that we have not seen here.
They formedan energy strategy. It offers anopportunity in this regard. The US’s LNG strategy has forced Russia to movemore to the on-spot market and become more flexible. Of course, if Russia givesa cheaper gas by changing the terms of the contract, all the geopoliticalstrategies will leave one side and Russian gas will be obtained.
The cheapergas is evaluated with the province. This leaves all other projects in adifficult situation. On the other hand, there is a Cyprus problem directly.
This makes it extremely difficult to set up a pipeline from scratch. I do notmean not impossible, but not as easy as discussed. For now, no company investswithout a stability and security environment ie without guarantee. Turkey’sattempts to get this gas, there is a need, telling Russian influence and priceissues aside. In the eastern Mediterranean said “Yes, it would beincredible if an agreement was made that really disturbed.
“Whatare the geopolitical risks associated with the future of Eastern Mediterraneangas resources?Energy sources havebeen in great conflict between countries for many years. Recently, with the gasreserves in eastern mediterranean countries, these conflicts are beginning tocause new debates among countries.The prominence of theEastern Mediterranean is attributed to the fact that it is located in themiddle of a triangle formed by main energy sources feeding the USA, China andIndia, energized at every corner of Russia, the Middle East and North Africa.(Özer, 2013)According to BrendaSchaffer, Following the current discoveries on the open sea areas of Israel andCyprus, significant oil and natural gas exploration activities are taking placein the Eastern Mediterranean.
This activity will lead to additional explorationand overseas explorations in other parts of the region, especially Lebanon. Thedetermination of natural gas quantities indicates that the region may be aremedy for the electricity sector in difficult situations and that despite therisk of conflict between the two communities on Cyprus there is a significantcommercial interest in oil and gas exploration in Cyprus as reflected in thenew procurement process for licenses. (Emerson, 2012)These developments ingas reserves in the eastern mediterranean region, the most important alliancein recent times, have led to alliances between Israel, Greece and Cyprus.
Atthe center of this union is the establishment of the Eastern MediterraneanPipeline from Israel and Southern Cyprus to transport the Eastern Mediterraneangas to the European market via Greece and the establishment of the Leviathanand Tamar fields in Israeli territorial waters and the smaller Cyprus Aphroditesite in which Israel and Cyprus gas are exported to Egypt the move to Europewith the existing LNG facilities is expected to lead to the emergence of newpolitical alliances and negotiations. (Aslan,2017)