International scenario:              1.

United Nations and human rights ofwomen:United Nations has variousagencies, which have their distinct area of work. They deal with women relatedissues in their particular area of operation. The atrocities committed duringthe Second World War are one of the strong reasons behind creation of aprotective mechanism for fundamental human rights at international level.             2. Provision of United Nations Charter 1945 concerning human rightsof Women: The soul of United Nations Charter i.e.

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thePreamble speaks explicitly about human rights of Women. It shows the importanceof the concept of parity especially with respect to gender. The Preamble says,”we the people of the United Nations determined to reaffirm faith in fundamentalhuman rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rightsof men and women and of Nations large and small.”              The very purpose of United Nationis, “to achieve international co-operation in solving international problems ofan economic, social cultural or humanitarian character and in promoting andencouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedom for allwithout distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.                3. Commission on the status of Women: The commission on the status of woman wasestablished in 1946. This commission is part and parcel of Economic and SocialCouncil .

At present the commission consist of 45 members. The commission hasdone valuable work on the status of women. The functions of the commission areto promote the rights of woman in Political, Economic, Civil, Social andEducational fields and also to advocate equal status of rights women with thoseof men.          4.Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 (UDHR)The universal declaration ofhuman rights 1948 is one of the greatest historic achievements of UnitedNations. This step has been taken for the promotion and protection of humanrights at international level. “All human being are born free and equal indignity and rights.”           Another important aspect in the areaof human rights is prohibition against discrimination.

“All are equal beforethe law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of thelaw .All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination inviolation of this Declaration and against any incitement to suchdiscrimination.”           5.International Convention for the suppression of the traffic in persons andexploitation of the prostitution of others 1949: This is an importantconvention, which prohibits and punishes the persons who do any act, whichincludes Prostitution and Traffic in Persons. The member countries shall takemeasures to educate and encourage through their public and private services toprevent prostitution and rehabilitation of victims of such offences.          6.Convention on the political rights of woman 1952: This is an important step towards universalattainment of equal rights between Men and Women. “Women shall be entitled tovote in all elections on equal terms with men, without any discrimination.

“”Women shall be eligible forelection to all publicly elected bodies established by National law on equalterms with men, without any discrimination.” The said convention specificallydeals with political rights of the women. It establishes electoral rights andparticipation of women in functionaries of Government.

            7.Convention on the nationality of married women 1957: In accordance of the view expressedby commission on the status of woman that there should be a convention on thenationality of married women to assure equality between men and women. The saidconvention speaks about prevention of becoming stateless of married woman aftermarriage. It was adopted in 1957 by the General assembly of United Nations.         8.Declaration on the elimination of discrimination against women 1967:The General Assembly adoptedthis convention in 1967.

The present convention is the result of notion of equalitybetween men and women, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserted thatall human beings are born free and equal in dignity. “Discrimination againstwomen denying or limiting as it does then equality of rights with men isfundamentally unjust and constitutes an offence against human dignity.”           9.Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women(CEDAW), 1979:The UN Convention on theElimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women advocates the maintainingof parity and to eliminate discrimination against women in all areas of lifeincluding healthcare, education, employment, domestic relations, law,commercial transactions and political participation among other things.

          10.Declaration on elimination of violence against women 1993:To combat violence againstwomen at international level this present declaration was brought in. “Violenceagainst Women” is an act of gender based violence that results in, or is likelyto result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to womenincluding threats of such acts coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty,whether occurring in public or in private life.”              11.

Vienna declaration and Human Rights of Women 1993: Thedeclaration was adopted by World conference on human rights in 1993. The WorldConference on Human Rights urges, “The full and equal enjoyment by women of allHuman Rights and that this be a priority for governments and for the UnitedNations. “The equal status of women and the human rights of women should beintegrated into the mainstream of United Nations system wide activity.

Theseissues should be regularly and systematically addressed through out therelevant United Nations bodies and mechanism.” Everything about equality hasbeen taken into consideration and it also recognizes the importance of theenjoyment by women of the highest standards of physical and mental health.           12.World conference on Women’s Human Rights:The first international conferenceon women was held in Mexico in 1975 under the title “Equality, development andpeace”.

It was recognized that women are also part and parcel of Development ofNation. Women should contribute for the progress of the country.              13.Beijingdeclaration 1995: In 1995 it was againreiterated that elimination of all obstacles for gender equality andadvancement and empowerment of women is the need of the time.

Furthermore,prevention of violence against women and girls child and primary health carefor girls and women has been given greater attention in the said declaration.Besides this the entire framework United Nations Development Fund for Women’s(UNIFEM) work on gender justice and United Nations Educational, Scientific andCultural Organizations (UNESCO) statement on women’s contribution on theculture of peace has taken special care and attention in the area of GenderEquality and multifarious aspects of the women. The European Convention onHuman Rights and American Convention on Human Rights 1969 also speak on thetheme of U N Charter and have adopted the same at the regional level.