International scenario:

              1. United Nations and human rights of

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United Nations has various
agencies, which have their distinct area of work. They deal with women related
issues in their particular area of operation. The atrocities committed during
the Second World War are one of the strong reasons behind creation of a
protective mechanism for fundamental human rights at international level.

             2. Provision of United Nations Charter 1945 concerning human rights
of Women:

 The soul of United Nations Charter i.e. the
Preamble speaks explicitly about human rights of Women. It shows the importance
of the concept of parity especially with respect to gender. The Preamble says,”
we the people of the United Nations determined to reaffirm faith in fundamental
human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights
of men and women and of Nations large and small.”

              The very purpose of United Nation
is, “to achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of
an economic, social cultural or humanitarian character and in promoting and
encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedom for all
without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.



              3. Commission on the status of Women:

 The commission on the status of woman was
established in 1946. This commission is part and parcel of Economic and Social
Council .At present the commission consist of 45 members. The commission has
done valuable work on the status of women. The functions of the commission are
to promote the rights of woman in Political, Economic, Civil, Social and
Educational fields and also to advocate equal status of rights women with those
of men.


Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 (UDHR)

The universal declaration of
human rights 1948 is one of the greatest historic achievements of United
Nations. This step has been taken for the promotion and protection of human
rights at international level. “All human being are born free and equal in
dignity and rights.”

           Another important aspect in the area
of human rights is prohibition against discrimination. “All are equal before
the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the
law .All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in
violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such


International Convention for the suppression of the traffic in persons and
exploitation of the prostitution of others 1949:

This is an important
convention, which prohibits and punishes the persons who do any act, which
includes Prostitution and Traffic in Persons. The member countries shall take
measures to educate and encourage through their public and private services to
prevent prostitution and rehabilitation of victims of such offences.


Convention on the political rights of woman 1952:

 This is an important step towards universal
attainment of equal rights between Men and Women. “Women shall be entitled to
vote in all elections on equal terms with men, without any discrimination.”

“Women shall be eligible for
election to all publicly elected bodies established by National law on equal
terms with men, without any discrimination.” The said convention specifically
deals with political rights of the women. It establishes electoral rights and
participation of women in functionaries of Government.


Convention on the nationality of married women 1957:

In accordance of the view expressed
by commission on the status of woman that there should be a convention on the
nationality of married women to assure equality between men and women. The said
convention speaks about prevention of becoming stateless of married woman after
marriage. It was adopted in 1957 by the General assembly of United Nations.


Declaration on the elimination of discrimination against women 1967:

The General Assembly adopted
this convention in 1967.The present convention is the result of notion of equality
between men and women, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserted that
all human beings are born free and equal in dignity. “Discrimination against
women denying or limiting as it does then equality of rights with men is
fundamentally unjust and constitutes an offence against human dignity.”


Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women
(CEDAW), 1979:

The UN Convention on the
Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women advocates the maintaining
of parity and to eliminate discrimination against women in all areas of life
including healthcare, education, employment, domestic relations, law,
commercial transactions and political participation among other things.


Declaration on elimination of violence against women 1993:

To combat violence against
women at international level this present declaration was brought in. “Violence
against Women” is an act of gender based violence that results in, or is likely
to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women
including threats of such acts coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty,
whether occurring in public or in private life.”

              11. Vienna declaration and Human Rights of Women 1993: The
declaration was adopted by World conference on human rights in 1993. The World
Conference on Human Rights urges, “The full and equal enjoyment by women of all
Human Rights and that this be a priority for governments and for the United
Nations. “The equal status of women and the human rights of women should be
integrated into the mainstream of United Nations system wide activity. These
issues should be regularly and systematically addressed through out the
relevant United Nations bodies and mechanism.” Everything about equality has
been taken into consideration and it also recognizes the importance of the
enjoyment by women of the highest standards of physical and mental health.


World conference on Women’s Human Rights:

The first international conference
on women was held in Mexico in 1975 under the title “Equality, development and
peace”. It was recognized that women are also part and parcel of Development of
Nation. Women should contribute for the progress of the country.



declaration 1995:

In 1995 it was again
reiterated that elimination of all obstacles for gender equality and
advancement and empowerment of women is the need of the time. Furthermore,
prevention of violence against women and girls child and primary health care
for girls and women has been given greater attention in the said declaration.

Besides this the entire framework United Nations Development Fund for Women’s
(UNIFEM) work on gender justice and United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organizations (UNESCO) statement on women’s contribution on the
culture of peace has taken special care and attention in the area of Gender
Equality and multifarious aspects of the women. The European Convention on
Human Rights and American Convention on Human Rights 1969 also speak on the
theme of U N Charter and have adopted the same at the regional level.