In recent years, metal
oxide nanoparticles have been studied thoroughly due to their extraordinary
properties which make them suitable for various potential applications in
pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries for large-scale production. Nowadays,
synthesis and characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles comprise a major
research area. A study has been conducted regarding the synthesis and processing
of such particles1-3. Metal oxide nanoparticles have drawn a great concern in
recent years owing to their enormous applications in various fields. A narrow
particle size distribution is desirable for many applications6. However,
alumina nanoparticles are expected to play important roles in various
applications.

Aluminum oxides or
hydroxides are odorless, white amorphous solid. They are amphoteric in nature,
i.e., have both acidic and basic properties. They are used in various chemical,
commercial, industrial applications. Consequently, the aluminum hydroxide is soluble
in both inorganic acids and sodium hydroxide solution and insoluble in water
and alcohol. It serves as an important precursor for the synthesis of alumina
and their ceramic products. So synthesis of nanostructures have been paid much
attention in recent years owing to their unique properties and wide range of
applications including as adsorbents, antacids, chromatography devices,
filtering medium, catalysts. A broad range of novel applications within these
fields depend on the redox/acid-base, surface, optical and mechanical
properties of oxide nanoparticles. Despite of the techniques, the ultimate aim
of particle synthesis predominantly focuses on controlling the particle size,
their morphology and crystallinity. Their shape and crystal structure can also
influence the material properties6. Lashanizadegan et al. synthesized aluminum oxide nanoparticles and surface
modification was done to prevent aggregation and also to ensure the perfect
dispersion of nanoparticles4. Richard et
al. explained the complete process for producing aluminum hydroxide with
improved whiteness5. The synthesis of aluminum oxides or hydroxides by
various methods, their characterization and applications are completely discussed
in this review paper.

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