Hygiene isa set of practices performed to preserve health. According tothe World Health Organization (WHO),Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain healthand prevent the spread of diseases. Health is basically, a feature ofthe dairy production process quality. TheEU Food hygiene legislation, which came into effect on 1 January 2006, set outmore clearly the duty of food businesses to produce food safely and to achieveconsistency.
It covers the whole foodchain from farm to fork. Key elements of the dairy hygiene legislation arethose relating to the health and cleanliness of the animals for CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION. In all dairy operations, small or large, animalhealth care represents a major component, next to genetics, feeding andmanagement quality.Firstly, because healthy animals can produce milk moreefficiently and healthy calves can grow in a more optimal way.
Secondly, because healthy animals will show a betterfeed intake pattern throughout lactation as well as a better fertilityperformance. Thirdly, because healthyanimals will show less welfare problems throughout their life, hence, improvingherd longevity. Fourthly, because animal health status can have a large impacton public health and food safety issues. NEED FORPRODUCING CLEAN MILK ;• The need for quality beginsat the farm where milk is produced. If milk is not produced hygienically it canaffect the health of many people.
Besides being a health hazard, contaminationof milk can lead to huge economical losses. Clean Milk is defined asmilk drawn from the udder of healthy animals, which is collected in clean drymilking pails and free from extraneous matters like dust, dirt, flies, hay,manure etc. Clean milk has a normalcomposition, possesses a natural milk flavour with low bacterial count and issafe for human consumption (Sinha, 2000) .Have a high keeping quality, high commercial value, can be transportedover long distances & is a high quality base product for processing,resulting in high quality products. FACTORS AFFECTING CMP ;• Milk – source of protein and calcium.• Milk – most easily perishable and contaminatedcommodity.• Milk should be stored/chilled immediately aftermilking.• Hygienic practice from farm to factory .
MEASURESOF CMP ;The followingmeasures should be taken care for the production of clean milk: 1. Animal Management at farm level. 2.Cleanliness of Milking equipments. 3. Hygienic milking practices.ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ;Milk from healthy udder is relativelyfree from harmful bacteria.
High bacterial count reduces the keeping quality ofmilk.Animal management involves the housing, feeding and health .HOUSING ;Animal shed – main source ofcontamination.Protects animals against micro-organisms, people, wind, rain,heat etc.Mud, urine, faeces and feed residues should be regularly removed fromthe shed.
Shed should have proper drainage, sufficient ventilation and lighting. Invery wet areas, slaked lime can be usedfor drying. Sufficient water facility should be available for drinking as wellas washing the shed and animal. Itshould be provided , with windows admitting daylight. The stall air should bealways fresh, pure, and free from dust and dirt. Avoid direct air currents anddust source in cow shed and milking byres.Shed : well-roofed, well ventilated, dry and comfortable with adequateelevation .Appropriate arrangement for disposal of animal waste (manure pit orbiogas plant) and left over feed & fodder.
Protection from flies and insectwhich are potential sources of contamination.Piggery and poultry farming shouldbe avoided near the animal premises. It is equally important to clean the cattle shed fromtime to time. The milking area of the shed needs special hygienic attention.
The floor of the milk shed should be swept with clean water, and disinfectedwith one-percent bleaching powder solution. Brooming the cattle shed and removal of dung and urinefrom time to time will control the files which are a major menace and source ofinfection. Chemical sprays can also be used.It is recommended toclean (sweep) the cattle shed minimum 30 minutes ahead of actual milking sothat the flying dust is allowed to settle on the ground which prevents itsentry in milk vessels. The shed should be fitted with fly-proof wire meshwherever possible. Keep the feed materials having off-flavours away from themilking area since these flavours are known to enter milk.
It should be cleanedafter every milking. Livestock should not have access to the shed during theday. Cleaning of walls, standings, gutter and other surroundings should bepracticed regularly .
FEEDING;Balanced feed with appropriatequantities of green fodder straw and concentrates having essential nutrientsand minerals is important.Feed ingredients should be stored in moisture-freeconditions. It is better to use the de-oiled ingredients in cattlefeed which will eliminate the risk of pesticide contamination of milk.Feedswhich have been contaminated with aflatoxins, plant toxins, heavy metals andradioactive metals should be avoided.Clean and potable water supply shouldalways be available. Facilities should be provided for a sufficient supply ofsafe and potable water. Good qualitystraw and supply of adequate minerals and vitamins.Feeding should be made onehour before milking.
During milking, non-dusty concentrate can be provided tokeep animals busy.Silage and wet crop residues should not be fed at milkingplace as it may impart foul odour to the milk.ANIMAL HEALTH ;Pre-requisite for CMP – healthy herd• Routine examination ofcattle for diseases like TB, Brucellosis etc.• Diseased animals shouldbe kept separate.• Sanitary precautions toprevent and control diseases should be adopted• Using inducer drugsshould be avoided• Check for udder woundsand mastitis.• Vaccination of animalsagainst FMD, Anthrax, etc.
should bedone regularly HYGIENIC MILKING ;Key factors : Hygienic condition of udder.• Some organism may entermilk during hand milking and machine milking.In addition, personal hygiene ofthe worker are important.Hygienic practices during milking contribute toproduce safe and suitable milk.
Floorsweeping just before milking should be avoidedMilker’s Hygienev Freefrom communicable diseasesv Shouldwear clean clothes, nails trimmedv Shouldneither eat or spit anything Before milking, milker should clean hishands with soap, potable water and then wipe with clean cloth or towel.UDDER WASHING; v Washing and cleaning should be done gently withoutdamaging the orifices and clefts between the quarters of the udder. There should be three buckets of water along withseparate cloths, Plain water, disinfectant solution, mild detergent solutionfor final wash. First wash with plain water and this will remove dirt particlesfrom the udder. A gentle detergent solution can be used for removing persistentdirt. Still the dirt persists, wipe it with a wet cloth, the cloth should bewrung along with the bucket. During severe winters, lukewarm water is preferredand this will also helps in letting down of milk.
The temperature of the warm watershould not be beyond 55°C.Addition of hypochlorite (500ppm i.e. 5 gramhypochlorite powder in 10 liters of water or half oz per gallon of water) helpsto disinfect the udder and is used as udder wash. Quaternary ammonium compounds (200-400 ppm) are bettersubstitutes as many farmers think that chlorine is irritating to udder. More over QAC has less harmful effects ontissues and organic matter has lesser effects on its activities or 1% PPlotion. If udder clothes are used, provide a clean cloth for each cow.
Itshould be sterilized before next use.Disposable paper towels are preferable andmore effective for drying after washing.The udder and teats should be wipedwith clean cloth dipped in detergent after milking.
METHOD / MILKING PRACTICE ;• The animalshould be milked out completely. No milk should be left inside after milking.Eliminate fore milk as it contains high bacterial counts.
Dry milking should bepracticed. Full hand milking method should be followed as it reduces teataberrations and there by chances of mastitis. Preferably avoid end-of-milkingstripping with the finger and thumb.
Rear quarters should be milked first asthey contain most milk and the milking bucket hooded to reduce contaminationfrom dust and udder hairs. At the end of milking, the teats should be dipped indisinfectant solution (commonly iodophore) This method is called teat dippingand this helps in closure of teat sphincters. Teat dipping reduces the entry ofmastitis germs and there by mastitis. Milking should be completed in 6-8minutes. Milking machine can be used in farms having more than8 cows.If the herd size exceeds 100, a separate milk parlour will ensure betterhygiene.The animal should be fed after milking so that the animal naturallykeeps standing for a longer time. If the animal is allowed to sit immediatelyafter milking, there are good chances for the mastitis germs to enter the teatcanals before their sphincters close up.
Ensured that the animals having anydisease should be milked in the end. Milk of diseased animals and diseasesuspected animals should be disposed of separately. Milk from the animalsreceiving antibiotic treatment should be handled separately for a period of 72hours after stoppage of treatment. CLEANLINESSOF MILKING EQUIPMENTS AND UTENSILS ;Milk vessels should be cleaned beforeand after each milking – rendering bacteria-free.Detergents/chemicals used forcleaning should be non-injurious, non-toxic to health like Teepol.Use of ash ormud not recommended.
Cleaned and sanitized vessels should be kept in invertedposition.Milking pail – dome shaped top should be used.Open buckets should notbe used.
For cleaning the milking bucket and foremilk (strip)cup, stool and udder washing equipments and other utensils is best done by aninitial rinse in clean water immediately after milking, followed by scrubbingin a hot (45°C or above) detergent/disinfectant solution before finally rinsingin chlorinated water (50 ppm). Another option is after scrubbing the equipment in hotdetergent solution, disinfect by immersing it in hot (above 75°C) water for atleast 3 minutes.The stainless steel lid and rubber gasket, rubber tubes and astainless steel teat cup assembly are loaded into a purpose designed steel-meshbasket and immersed into a rubber or mild-steel bin containing a 3-5% causticsoda solution. The equipment remains in the solution until the nextmilking. Before use, all traces of caustic soda solution removed by thoroughrinsing in chlorinated (50 ppm) water. Advantageof producing clean milk is lost if post milking handling is not carefullydone.To preserve the keeping quality of milk, it should be cooled as soon aspossible to a temp. below 5°C in a refrigerator.
ENSURING MILK HYGIENE IN INDIAN CONDITIONSProper awareness should begiven to the dairy farmers regarding clean milk production through personaladvice, film shows, demonstrations etc. By such extension works ,only theproducers knows about the dreadful effects of their carelessness and unhygienicpractices of milk production on the health issues of people as well as on theirlong term economic interests.They should be educated properly.A massiveawareness programme has been launched to improve the quality of raw milk. Trainedextension agents conduct awareness and training programmes for milk producers,village cooperatives, procurement and other dairy professionals, members ofmilk cooperatives and transporters. They should be educated about the importance of animal health & hygiene, use ofpotable water for washing milk vessels, clean stainless steel utensils, cleanhands, hygienic milking procedures as well as a clean and tidy environment.
Payment for milk is usually based on quality of milkalong with the two axis price system- Fat and SNF. But, usually less importanceis given to the milk quality. For this, the consumers should also be willing topay for quality of milk and this can be achieved through consumer educationprogrammes utilizing mass media and other means. We can also achieve thisthrough imposition of penalty on default, penalty to the societies onsupply of poor quality milk and payment of higher price to the cooperativessupplying good quality raw milk.
Protection of the consumer right for better qualitymilk through appropriate legislation is now become a necessity. The Milk andMilk Products Order should be strengthened. All milk vendors should be licensedfor ensuring safe handling of milk and milk products. If properly enacted, suchorder will surely go for a long way towards improving the supply of qualitymilk. Organic farm productsare the latest concept of market that fetch good price from the consumer. Milkis not an exception. Hence, it will be in the interest of the dairyorganizations to plan their programme to ultimately meet this demand and thiscan be only achieved through clean milk production. It is suggested thatthe dairy organizations whether cooperative or private, concentrate their focuson the animal husbandry practices and milking practices apart from utmost careat milk collection centers.
For that, the dairy organization should create atask force to initiate quality improvement programme. The mode of action isthat, the task force should undertake benchmark survey in terms of standardplate count and spore counts, and then decide the targets to be achieved inphased manner. This should be followed by awareness programmes including farmereducation and providing them required materials. Most quality controllaboratories in the dairy plants are busy with routine testing for fat and SNF. Food grade stainless steel vessels and accessories are intoduced. Thatincludes SPV System based BMC , AMCU, DPIP can be adopted. Holding of clean milkcompetitions. Enabling villagers to visit exhibitions.
Bringing research andextension workers to villages to study local problems and extend help forsolving these problems in a participatory way are suggestive.