Hygiene is
a set of practices performed to preserve health. According to
the World Health Organization (WHO),Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health
and prevent the spread of diseases. Health is basically, a feature of
the dairy production process quality. The
EU Food hygiene legislation, which came into effect on 1 January 2006, set out
more clearly the duty of food businesses to produce food safely and to achieve
consistency.  It covers the whole food
chain from farm to fork. Key elements of the dairy hygiene legislation are
those relating to the health and cleanliness of the animals for   CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION. In all dairy operations, small or large, animal
health care represents a major component, next to genetics, feeding and
management quality.Firstly, because healthy animals can produce milk more
efficiently and healthy calves can grow in a more optimal way. Secondly, because healthy animals will show a better
feed intake pattern throughout lactation as well as a better fertility
performance.  Thirdly, because healthy
animals will show less welfare problems throughout their life, hence, improving
herd longevity. Fourthly, because animal health status can have a large impact
on public  health and food safety issues.



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•      The need for quality begins
at the farm where milk is produced. If milk is not produced hygienically it can
affect the health of many people. Besides being a health hazard, contamination
of milk can lead to huge economical losses. Clean Milk is defined as
milk drawn from the udder of healthy animals, which is collected in clean dry
milking pails and free from extraneous matters like dust, dirt, flies, hay,
manure etc. Clean milk has a normal
composition, possesses a natural milk flavour with low bacterial count and is
safe for human consumption (Sinha, 2000) .Have a high keeping quality, high commercial value, can be transported
over long distances & is a high quality base product for processing,
resulting in high quality products.



•      Milk – source of protein and calcium.

•      Milk – most easily perishable and contaminated

•      Milk should be stored/chilled immediately after

•      Hygienic practice from farm to factory .MEASURES

The following
measures should be taken care for the production of clean milk:

 1. Animal Management at farm level.

of Milking equipments.

 3. Hygienic milking practices.


Milk from healthy udder is relatively
free from harmful bacteria.High bacterial count reduces the keeping quality of
milk.Animal management involves the housing, feeding  and health .


Animal shed – main source of
contamination.Protects animals against micro-organisms, people, wind, rain,
heat etc.Mud, urine, faeces and feed residues should be regularly removed from
the shed.Shed should have proper drainage, sufficient ventilation and lighting. In
very wet areas, slaked lime can  be used
for drying. Sufficient water facility should be available for drinking as well
as washing the shed and animal. It
should be provided , with windows admitting daylight. The stall air should be
always fresh, pure, and free from dust and dirt. Avoid direct air currents and
dust source in cow shed and milking byres.
Shed : well-roofed, well ventilated, dry and comfortable with adequate
elevation .Appropriate arrangement for disposal of animal waste (manure pit or
biogas plant) and left over feed & fodder.Protection from flies and insect
which are potential sources of contamination.Piggery and poultry farming should
be avoided near the animal premises. It is equally important to clean the cattle shed from
time to time. The milking area of the shed needs special hygienic attention.
The floor of the milk shed should be swept with clean water, and disinfected
with one-percent bleaching powder solution. Brooming the cattle shed and removal of dung and urine
from time to time will control the files which are a major menace and source of
infection. Chemical sprays can also be used.It is recommended to
clean (sweep) the cattle shed minimum 30 minutes ahead of actual milking so
that the flying dust is allowed to settle on the ground which prevents its
entry in milk vessels. The shed should be fitted with fly-proof wire mesh
wherever possible. Keep the feed materials having off-flavours away from the
milking area since these flavours are known to enter milk.It should be cleaned
after every milking. Livestock should not have access to the shed during the
day. Cleaning of walls, standings, gutter and other surroundings should be
practiced regularly .


Balanced feed with appropriate
quantities of green fodder straw and concentrates having essential nutrients
and minerals is important.Feed ingredients should be stored in moisture-free
conditions. It is better to use the de-oiled ingredients in cattle
feed which will eliminate the risk of pesticide contamination of milk.Feeds
which have been contaminated with aflatoxins, plant toxins, heavy metals and
radioactive metals should be avoided.Clean and potable water supply should
always be available. Facilities should be provided for a sufficient supply of
safe and potable water. Good quality
straw and supply of adequate minerals and vitamins.Feeding should be made one
hour before milking.During milking, non-dusty concentrate can be provided to
keep animals busy.Silage and wet crop residues should not be fed at milking
place as it may impart foul odour to the milk.


Pre-requisite for CMP – healthy herd

Routine examination of
cattle for diseases like TB, Brucellosis etc.

Diseased animals should
be kept separate.

Sanitary precautions to
prevent and control diseases should be adopted

Using inducer drugs
should be avoided

Check for udder wounds
and mastitis.

Vaccination of animals
against FMD, Anthrax,  etc. should be
done regularly



Key factors :  Hygienic condition of  udder.

Some organism may enter
milk during hand milking and machine milking.In addition, personal hygiene of
the worker are important.Hygienic practices during milking contribute to
produce safe and suitable milk. Floor
sweeping just before milking should be avoided

Milker’s Hygiene

v Free
from communicable diseases

v Should
wear clean clothes, nails trimmed

v Should
neither eat or spit anything

Before milking, milker should clean his
hands with soap, potable water and then wipe with clean cloth or towel.


v Washing and cleaning should be done gently without
damaging the orifices and clefts between the quarters of the udder. There should be three buckets of water along with
separate cloths, Plain water, disinfectant solution, mild detergent solution
for final wash. First wash with plain water and this will remove dirt particles
from the udder. A gentle detergent solution can be used for removing persistent
dirt. Still the dirt persists, wipe it with a wet cloth, the cloth should be
wrung along with the bucket. During severe winters, lukewarm water is preferred
and this will also helps in letting down of milk.The temperature of the warm water
should not be beyond 55°C.Addition of hypochlorite (500ppm i.e. 5 gram
hypochlorite powder in 10 liters of water or half oz per gallon of water) helps
to disinfect the udder and is used as udder wash. Quaternary ammonium compounds (200-400 ppm) are better
substitutes as many farmers think that chlorine is irritating to udder.  More over QAC has less harmful effects on
tissues and organic matter has lesser effects on its activities or 1% PP
lotion. If udder clothes are used, provide a clean cloth for each cow. It
should be sterilized before next use.Disposable paper towels are preferable and
more effective for drying after washing.The udder and teats should be wiped
with clean cloth dipped in detergent after milking.


The animal
should be milked out completely. No milk should be left inside after milking.
Eliminate fore milk as it contains high bacterial counts. Dry milking should be
practiced. Full hand milking method should be followed as it reduces teat
aberrations and there by chances of mastitis. Preferably avoid end-of-milking
stripping with the finger and thumb. Rear quarters should be milked first as
they contain most milk and the milking bucket hooded to reduce contamination
from dust and udder hairs. At the end of milking, the teats should be dipped in
disinfectant solution (commonly iodophore) This method is called teat dipping
and this helps in closure of teat sphincters. Teat dipping reduces the entry of
mastitis germs and there by mastitis. Milking should be completed in 6-8
minutes. Milking machine can be used in farms having more than
8 cows.If the herd size exceeds 100, a separate milk parlour will ensure better
hygiene.The animal should be fed after milking so that the animal naturally
keeps standing for a longer time. If the animal is allowed to sit immediately
after milking, there are good chances for the mastitis germs to enter the teat
canals before their sphincters close up. Ensured that the animals having any
disease should be milked in the end. Milk of diseased animals and disease
suspected animals should be disposed of separately. Milk from the animals
receiving antibiotic treatment should be handled separately for a period of 72
hours after stoppage of treatment.




Milk vessels should be cleaned before
and after each milking – rendering bacteria-free.Detergents/chemicals used for
cleaning should be non-injurious, non-toxic to health like Teepol.Use of ash or
mud not recommended.Cleaned and sanitized vessels should be kept in inverted
position.Milking pail – dome shaped top should be used.Open buckets should not
be used. For cleaning the milking bucket and foremilk (strip)
cup, stool and udder washing equipments and other utensils is best done by an
initial rinse in clean water immediately after milking, followed by scrubbing
in a hot (45°C or above) detergent/disinfectant solution before finally rinsing
in chlorinated water (50 ppm). Another option is after scrubbing the equipment in hot
detergent solution, disinfect by immersing it in hot (above 75°C) water for at
least 3 minutes.The stainless steel lid and rubber gasket, rubber tubes and a
stainless steel teat cup assembly are loaded into a purpose designed steel-mesh
basket and immersed into a rubber or mild-steel bin containing a 3-5% caustic
soda solution. The equipment remains in the solution until the next
milking. Before use, all traces of caustic soda solution removed by thorough
rinsing in chlorinated (50 ppm) water. Advantage
of producing clean milk is lost if post milking handling is not carefully
done.To preserve the keeping quality of milk, it should be cooled as soon as
possible to a temp. below 5°C in a refrigerator.



Proper awareness should be
given to the dairy farmers regarding clean milk production through personal
advice, film shows, demonstrations etc. By such extension works ,only the
producers knows about the dreadful effects of their carelessness and unhygienic
practices of milk production on the health issues of people as well as on their
long term economic interests.They should be educated properly.A massive
awareness programme has been launched to improve the quality of raw milk. Trained
extension agents conduct awareness and training programmes for milk producers,
village cooperatives, procurement and other dairy professionals, members of
milk cooperatives and transporters. They should be 
educated about the importance of animal health & hygiene, use of
potable water for washing milk vessels, clean stainless steel utensils, clean
hands, hygienic milking procedures as well as a clean and tidy environment.
Payment for milk is usually based on quality of milk
along with the two axis price system- Fat and SNF. But, usually less importance
is given to the milk quality. For this, the consumers should also be willing to
pay for quality of milk and this can be achieved through consumer education
programmes utilizing mass media and other means. We can also achieve this
through imposition of penalty on default, penalty to the societies on
supply of poor quality milk and payment of higher price to the cooperatives
supplying good quality raw milk. Protection of the consumer right for better quality
milk through appropriate legislation is now become a necessity. The Milk and
Milk Products Order should be strengthened. All milk vendors should be licensed
for ensuring safe handling of milk and milk products. If properly enacted, such
order will surely go for a long way towards improving the supply of quality



                      Organic farm products
are the latest concept of market that fetch good price from the consumer. Milk
is not an exception. Hence, it will be in the interest of the dairy
organizations to plan their programme to ultimately meet this demand and this
can be only achieved through clean milk production. It is suggested that
the dairy organizations whether cooperative or private, concentrate their focus
on the animal husbandry practices and milking practices apart from utmost care
at milk collection centers. For that, the dairy organization should create a
task force to initiate quality improvement programme. The mode of action is
that, the task force should undertake benchmark survey in terms of standard
plate count and spore counts, and then decide the targets to be achieved in
phased manner. This should be followed by awareness programmes including farmer
education and providing them required materials. Most quality control
laboratories in the dairy plants are busy with routine testing for fat and SNF
. Food grade stainless steel vessels and accessories are intoduced. That
includes SPV System based BMC , AMCU, DPIP can be adopted. Holding of clean milk
competitions. Enabling villagers to visit exhibitions. Bringing research and
extension workers to villages to study local problems and extend help for
solving these problems in a participatory way are suggestive.