Hirschman (1970) proposed evidences of
employee behvaiours where employees speak up to change the recent scenario
rather than go on to work with unproductive in efficient status quo (Maynes
and Podsakoff 2014). These
behaviors are considered to be vital and make sure that organizations are
enduring and adapting dynamic business situation and are termed as employee
voice. Initial voice literature, scholars view primary motive of voice is
removal of personal dissatisfaction and voice is defined as a complaint
mechanism (Hirschman 1970). Voice is conceptualized as one of four different
ways in which employees can respond to personal dissatisfaction at work, the
others being exit, loyalty, and neglect (Farrell & Rusbult, 1992; Rusbult,
Farrell, Rogers, & Mainous, 1988; Withey & Cooper, 1989). Further,
definition of voice has been modified as any efforts which try to improve
current situation, and included a wide collection of behaviors: raising issues
to one’s supervisor, making endeavor to change the current working conditions,
working harder, asking co-workers for guidance about what to do, or seeking an
outside agency to get help in varying working conditions. Recently, researchers
view voice as a form of discretionary pro-social behavior (i.e., less
self-focused and more other-focused)

 

Initial researches in the area of
employee voices were quite limited due to short of conceptual clarity of
employee voices and non availability of robust measurements including
statistical tools. (Gorden, 1988). However, scholars
started to pay attention on voice research after the revolutionary study of Van Dyne and LePine 1998, where he not only defined the raise of
employee voice but also developed an remedy for it. As per the study of Van
Dyne and LePine (1998), the voice is explained as how employee express
practical dispute that aimed to improve the current scenario and he mentioned
that change oriented implications and proposal for improvement are some of the
examples for voices. Scholars tried to define voices as employees’
discretionary behavior which is intended to improve organizational performance,
challenge & disconcert of the scenario quo and mainly designed to aim the
people who holds authority within the organization (Detert and Burris (2007). Voice is considered to be employees’
expression such as opinions, anxiety about work-related issues that are
challenging and constructive (Tangirala and Ramanujam (2008b). Sometimes voice
is considered to be employees’ intended efforts to communicate instead of
withholding relevant ideas, information and belief in association with work
related improvements ( Van Dyne, Ang, and Botero
(2003).  Encompassing both voices which is
directed towards higher authority as well as to team mates, Morrison 2011
suggested an integrated definition of voice as employees discretionary behavior
of expressive ideas, suggestions, anxiety or opinions  about 
their work related issues in order to develop the organization or their
department or team performance and performance Burris,
Detert, & Chiaburu, 2008; Detert & Burris, 2007; Detert & Trevino,
2010; LePine & Van Dyne, 1998; Tangirala & Ramanujam, 2008b; Van Dyne,
Ang, & Botero, 2003; Van Dyne & LePine, 1998)

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