Hirschman (1970) proposed evidences ofemployee behvaiours where employees speak up to change the recent scenariorather than go on to work with unproductive in efficient status quo (Maynesand Podsakoff 2014).
Thesebehaviors are considered to be vital and make sure that organizations areenduring and adapting dynamic business situation and are termed as employeevoice. Initial voice literature, scholars view primary motive of voice isremoval of personal dissatisfaction and voice is defined as a complaintmechanism (Hirschman 1970). Voice is conceptualized as one of four differentways in which employees can respond to personal dissatisfaction at work, theothers being exit, loyalty, and neglect (Farrell & Rusbult, 1992; Rusbult,Farrell, Rogers, & Mainous, 1988; Withey & Cooper, 1989). Further,definition of voice has been modified as any efforts which try to improvecurrent situation, and included a wide collection of behaviors: raising issuesto one’s supervisor, making endeavor to change the current working conditions,working harder, asking co-workers for guidance about what to do, or seeking anoutside agency to get help in varying working conditions. Recently, researchersview voice as a form of discretionary pro-social behavior (i.e., lessself-focused and more other-focused) Initial researches in the area ofemployee voices were quite limited due to short of conceptual clarity ofemployee voices and non availability of robust measurements includingstatistical tools.
(Gorden, 1988). However, scholarsstarted to pay attention on voice research after the revolutionary study of Van Dyne and LePine 1998, where he not only defined the raise ofemployee voice but also developed an remedy for it. As per the study of VanDyne and LePine (1998), the voice is explained as how employee expresspractical dispute that aimed to improve the current scenario and he mentionedthat change oriented implications and proposal for improvement are some of theexamples for voices. Scholars tried to define voices as employees’discretionary behavior which is intended to improve organizational performance,challenge & disconcert of the scenario quo and mainly designed to aim thepeople who holds authority within the organization (Detert and Burris (2007). Voice is considered to be employees’expression such as opinions, anxiety about work-related issues that arechallenging and constructive (Tangirala and Ramanujam (2008b).
Sometimes voiceis considered to be employees’ intended efforts to communicate instead ofwithholding relevant ideas, information and belief in association with workrelated improvements ( Van Dyne, Ang, and Botero(2003). Encompassing both voices which isdirected towards higher authority as well as to team mates, Morrison 2011suggested an integrated definition of voice as employees discretionary behaviorof expressive ideas, suggestions, anxiety or opinions about their work related issues in order to develop the organization or theirdepartment or team performance and performance Burris,Detert, & Chiaburu, 2008; Detert & Burris, 2007; Detert & Trevino,2010; LePine & Van Dyne, 1998; Tangirala & Ramanujam, 2008b; Van Dyne,Ang, & Botero, 2003; Van Dyne & LePine, 1998)