is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis causes
around 171 000 deaths every year in Europe. There are five types of viral
hepatitis (A, B, C, D, and E).  Hepatitis
A and E are mainly caused by contaminated food and water while hepatitis B, C,
and D are transmitted through infected blood and body fluids. Symptoms of
hepatitis include jaundice, abdominal pain, dark colored urine, nausea,
fatigue, and vomiting. However, hepatitis is considered asymptomatic in most
cases and that what makes it a silent killer, which would make it hard to be
identified without the proper testing. Such thing, made hepatitis to be the
seventh leading cause of death in the world (Gottfried Hirnschall, 2015; WHO,
n. d.). According to the World Health Organization European Region, chronic
hepatitis B affects around 13.3 million people and hepatitis C affects 15
million people worldwide per year. In WHO Europe region, there are 36 000 and 86 000 deaths per year that
are caused by hepatitis B and C respectively (WHO,


Hepatitis A still considered to be a major health issue
that is needed to be tracked because in middle and low income countries hepatitis
A infects thousands of individuals and causes death for hundreds yearly mostly
among elderly people and children. Since 1990, the incidence of hepatitis A has
decreased in most of the countries. Furthermore, Europe faces a high burden of
hepatitis B, particularly among old age group. The risk group for hepatitis B
is multiple sexual people, homosexual male, injection drugs user and health
care workers. In addition, 70% – 90% of newborns are infected if the mother is
infected too which make them at high risk of morbidity and mortality (WHO,

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The main focus of this paper will be on hepatitis B among
health care workers, due to the seriousness of this problem which requires an
immediate attention. Health care workers provide care to the society and
therefore, should be infections-free because if not, they might be a source of
infection due to their close contact with patients. The paper will provide some
alternative solutions to the issue of hepatitis B among health care workers.