he world’s climate is changing, and the changes will have an enormous impact in our
forest ecosystem. The latter is known for its lichen cover whose important role in nature is a bio
indicator of climate change.

Bukidnon is a mountainous province located in central Mindanao. The elevation ranges
from 622 meters above sea level to 2941 meters above sea level. The whole province is
surrounded by mountain ranges that are associated with fertile plains, inner valley, lakes, and
outer flood plains. The place gets its most of its moisture from the precipitation which mostly
occurs whole year round, except during isolated cases of drought. As such, Bukidnon mountains
house of vegetation which is rich in biodiversity. A number of studies have already been
conducted in biodiversity, but relatively few studies on elevational richness patterns for lichens
have been undertaken (Kessler 2000; Bruun et al. 2006; Grytnes et al. 2006).

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Lichens are small plants, with slow growth and thrive in cool environment in higher
forest elevation and are estimated about 20,000 species worldwide. They have a wide variety of
growth forms, such as crustose, foliose and fruticose. These group also grow on a wide range of
substrates both natural and man-made and obtain their required nutrients and water quality from
the atmosphere thus, are highly sensitive to atmospheric changes and are excellent bio indicators
of environment quality (Dyer and Letourneau, 2007; Mc Cure, 2000).

The present status of climate change and air pollution had been a critical factor in
affecting diversity status and population of lichens. The lichen flora species is noted being a
natural indicator of climate change and air pollution effects and is very useful for monitoring
existing species along in mountain region. Thus lichens represent a significant proportion of
biodiversity in many ecosystems because of their moderate tolerance to environmental variation.
The different growth forms exhibits variation in their morphology structures like the Crustose
lichens usually form a crust on surface of the rock or material thus their fat body structures are
closely attached to the substrate. The Foliose or leafy lichens on the other hand, are leaf-like and
can survive in a place that has small amount of air pollution; whereas the Fruticose or shrubby
lichens are fastest growing type and are attached to their substrate very loosely causing them to
hang in the trees and seen bushy. These type of lichen really needs fresh air enable to survive
thus when there are no fruticose observed then the environment is said to be polluted. This report
also examines how altitude, air temperature, relative humidity, and pH affect the growth rate and
the number of types of lichens other than air quality.

Air pollution is still unresolved and continuously destroys the environment including the
forest ecosystem with air pollution affects the production, growth development of the floral
species, thus kills the biodiversity of the species inhabiting the said area. To preserve and

manage the species, it is important to monitor the atmospheric condition of the remaining forest
in different locations.

In as much that, only few researchers has been working on lichens, the present study
hopes to contribute on the taxonomy status and ecological distribution of lichens in Binahon
Agroforestry Farm.