Genotypic Frequencies of TAS2R38

                  When
the gene TAS2R38 was augmented, it was expected that more students would have
the Tt genotype than the other two genotypes, TT and tt. According to
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the data calculated below, the hypothesis
proposes that evolution is occurring, hence the population not in equilibrium.

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Genotypic Frequencies of LCT

                  When
the gene LCT was augmented, it was expected that more students would have the
CT or CC genotype than the TT genotype. According to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium,
along with the data calculated below, it shows that the hypothesis proposes
that evolution is not occurring, hence the population is in equilibrium.

 

 

 

 

Figure
1 data shows a few results for the objective locus TAS2R38 and LCT. On the
TAS2R38 gene, for the student to have a “TT” homozygous genotype, there will be
two DNA fragments situated at 238 and 65 bp. A “tt” homozygous individual will
just have one DNA fragment at 303 bp. A “Tt” heterozygous individual will have
three parts in each of the three areas On the LCT gene, for the student to have
a “CC” homozygous genotype, there will be one DNA fragment at 386 bp. A “TT”
homozygous individual will have two DNA fragments at 238 and 148 bp. A “CT”
heterozygous individual will have three DNA fragments at 386, 238, and 148 bp. (Leicht
and McAllister 2017). Lanes 3 and 4 consisted of the LCT gene, which shows a
heterozygous genotype, CT. Lanes 6 and 7 consisted of the TAS2R38 gene; lane 6
(S2) shows three lines, the 65 bp being very faint, meaning Subject 2 has the “Tt”
heterozygous genotype. Lane 7 (S1) shows one line at 303 bp indicating the
individual is a “tt” homozygous genotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In
Table 3, the Chi-square goodness of fit test is used to determine whether the
results defend the null hypothesis or not. At one degree of freedom, the
Chi-square value for TAS2R38 was 3.62 and the p-value was less than .02; the
Chi-square value for LCT was 14.17 and the p-value for was greater than .25.

 

Discussion

The
objective of this experiment was to decide genotypes of the students and
compute if the the LCT and TAS2R38 loci was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of
the students tested. The hypothesis anticipated that evolution was taking place
through the TAS2R38 gene over a generation, since the population isn’t in
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; meaning the majority of the class were tasters. The
greater part of the class was heterozygous on the LCT gene; this implies most
of the class could create lactase which in turn breaks down lactose. Utilizing the
Chi-square goodness of fit test, the hypothesis of evolution not proceeding and
TAS2R38 being in equilibrium was rejected (p<.02); The group subjects of this experiment were not in equilibrium for LCT, however, meaning evolution was proceeding (p>.25). This could be for an assortment of reasons, including
the small test group, potential human errors from different groups, only one
generation was tried. Given a bigger population across a numerous amount of
generations, the population may become out of equilibrium for LCT based on
factors such as natural selection, mutation and gene flow.

A
population must satisfy the following five conditions to be at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium:
no mutations, random mating must occur, an infinite population size, no gene
flow, and there must be no natural selection. (Leicht and McAllister 2017) At
the point when a population neglects to be at equilibrium, there is an
adjustment in allele frequency, and evolution proceeds (Sadava, 2002). When
contrasting the examined population with a population at equilibrium, the
biggest reasons for abnormality are the factors of natural selection and gene
flow. Since it was an experiment over one generation, random mating wasn’t
probable. Also, the gel electrophoresis only test DNA that was expected, so loss/gain
of alleles of the tested population were additionally impossible. Since genetic
drift happens in each population, it is doubtful that it is the conclusion for
the HW estimations.

The
general findings correspond with Wooding’s discoveries on the pervasiveness of
the genotypes on the TAS2R38 locus; in the underlying tests, the ratios were
not the same, yet evolution was occurring due to the hypothesis not being in
equilibrium. Wooding’s discoveries encourage the theory that just a single T
allele must be available for lactase to produced, which also is supported due
to the bigger, diverse population tested. (Wooding 2006)

Additionally,
in 2002, Enattah distributed an article on the discoveries that lactase production
was related to natural selection. Lactase production was altogether more found
in European districts than in African areas, recommending that natural
selection favored Europeans who could process lactose. (Enattah, 2002) This
proves that the data received in this experiment is not sufficient with the
research Enattah proposed.