Genotypic Frequencies of TAS2R38 Whenthe gene TAS2R38 was augmented, it was expected that more students would havethe Tt genotype than the other two genotypes, TT and tt. According toHardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the data calculated below, the hypothesisproposes that evolution is occurring, hence the population not in equilibrium. Genotypic Frequencies of LCT Whenthe gene LCT was augmented, it was expected that more students would have theCT or CC genotype than the TT genotype.
According to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium,along with the data calculated below, it shows that the hypothesis proposesthat evolution is not occurring, hence the population is in equilibrium. Figure1 data shows a few results for the objective locus TAS2R38 and LCT. On theTAS2R38 gene, for the student to have a “TT” homozygous genotype, there will betwo DNA fragments situated at 238 and 65 bp. A “tt” homozygous individual willjust have one DNA fragment at 303 bp. A “Tt” heterozygous individual will havethree parts in each of the three areas On the LCT gene, for the student to havea “CC” homozygous genotype, there will be one DNA fragment at 386 bp.
A “TT”homozygous individual will have two DNA fragments at 238 and 148 bp. A “CT”heterozygous individual will have three DNA fragments at 386, 238, and 148 bp. (Leichtand McAllister 2017). Lanes 3 and 4 consisted of the LCT gene, which shows aheterozygous genotype, CT. Lanes 6 and 7 consisted of the TAS2R38 gene; lane 6(S2) shows three lines, the 65 bp being very faint, meaning Subject 2 has the “Tt”heterozygous genotype. Lane 7 (S1) shows one line at 303 bp indicating theindividual is a “tt” homozygous genotype.
InTable 3, the Chi-square goodness of fit test is used to determine whether theresults defend the null hypothesis or not. At one degree of freedom, theChi-square value for TAS2R38 was 3.62 and the p-value was less than .02; theChi-square value for LCT was 14.
17 and the p-value for was greater than .25. DiscussionTheobjective of this experiment was to decide genotypes of the students andcompute if the the LCT and TAS2R38 loci was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ofthe students tested. The hypothesis anticipated that evolution was taking placethrough the TAS2R38 gene over a generation, since the population isn’t inHardy-Weinberg equilibrium; meaning the majority of the class were tasters. Thegreater part of the class was heterozygous on the LCT gene; this implies mostof the class could create lactase which in turn breaks down lactose. Utilizing theChi-square goodness of fit test, the hypothesis of evolution not proceeding andTAS2R38 being in equilibrium was rejected (p<.02); The group subjects ofthis experiment were not in equilibrium for LCT, however, meaning evolution wasproceeding (p>.
25). This could be for an assortment of reasons, includingthe small test group, potential human errors from different groups, only onegeneration was tried. Given a bigger population across a numerous amount ofgenerations, the population may become out of equilibrium for LCT based onfactors such as natural selection, mutation and gene flow. Apopulation must satisfy the following five conditions to be at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium:no mutations, random mating must occur, an infinite population size, no geneflow, and there must be no natural selection. (Leicht and McAllister 2017) Atthe point when a population neglects to be at equilibrium, there is anadjustment in allele frequency, and evolution proceeds (Sadava, 2002).
Whencontrasting the examined population with a population at equilibrium, thebiggest reasons for abnormality are the factors of natural selection and geneflow. Since it was an experiment over one generation, random mating wasn’tprobable. Also, the gel electrophoresis only test DNA that was expected, so loss/gainof alleles of the tested population were additionally impossible. Since geneticdrift happens in each population, it is doubtful that it is the conclusion forthe HW estimations.Thegeneral findings correspond with Wooding’s discoveries on the pervasiveness ofthe genotypes on the TAS2R38 locus; in the underlying tests, the ratios werenot the same, yet evolution was occurring due to the hypothesis not being inequilibrium. Wooding’s discoveries encourage the theory that just a single Tallele must be available for lactase to produced, which also is supported dueto the bigger, diverse population tested.
(Wooding 2006)Additionally,in 2002, Enattah distributed an article on the discoveries that lactase productionwas related to natural selection. Lactase production was altogether more foundin European districts than in African areas, recommending that naturalselection favored Europeans who could process lactose. (Enattah, 2002) Thisproves that the data received in this experiment is not sufficient with theresearch Enattah proposed.