The right to life, liberty and security of person are the human rights. Human rights often mean different thing to different people. In MONARCHY or DICTATORSHIP, all the political power including power of life and death in many cases is concentrated in the hand of single person who is not accountable to anyone else for his action.
In monarchial governmental, all the power in one hand and there is complete concentration of power in one hand. According to Thomas Paine, In the Rights of Man is 1721 about French revolution that “the representation of people of France feels that ignorance of human right are the main cruse of public misfortune.
In Athens and Greek democracies people become more aware about their right. In Athens every eligible citizen has right to participate in governing process of city state. The Athenian citizen had the right of trial before being punished for breaking law.
They also enjoy political rights like to speak freely about the political question of day and to criticize the government. These are the basic elements of Greek democracy that evolve into human rights. The Great philosopher thinkers like Plato and Aristotle are more familiar with this.
Ciero the statesman and orator of ancient Rome, produced the work that the reflected the principle of Roman republic and rights of citizen. Magna Carta (1215) is an example of attempt to remedy violation of rights. Many philosophers like Locke, Rousseau, Grotius has great contribution in development of human right. Locke in asserting the right of life, liberty and property Rousseau asserting the sovereignty of citizen. In 1775 to redress their grievances against British government for their denial of their rights.
In Declaration of Independence acknowledged the fundamental human rights. Human right means different thing to different people.
Human rights are mainly social, economic and political rights. Such rights include right to life, liberty, personal security, freedom of speech, expression, opinion, though, conscience, religion, freedom of privacy, press, freedom of equality, a four trial, right to question the government, right to criticize the government, right to vote, guarantees against inhuman punishment. Among all the rights, the most important is right to vote. All the social, economic, political, civil, community and collective rights are divided in different generation rights.
Civil and political rights are first generation rights collective and community rights are third generation rights. Economics and social rights are second generation rights. Many international bills such as- Universal declaration of human right (1948) covenant on social, economic and cultural rights (1966) have great contribution for human rights. During 19thcentury religious minorities receive some more attention and were embodied in several treaties including. Treaty of Paries (1856), Treaty of Berlin (1878). Human rights developed further after league of nation established in 1920.
Human rights in a positive sense are subject defined by international law. The most fundamental point about human right law is to establish as set of rules for all states and all peoples. It seeks to national unity and counteracts national separateness. It this sense, human right is revolutionary because it contradicts the notion of national sovereignty.
A list of human rights is found in universal declaration of human rights. These human rights are non-discrimination on the bases of race, Color sex. language, religion, political property, birth, right to life, liberty and security of person, freedom from torture, cruel and inhuman or punishment, right to fair, right to recognition as person before the law, effective remedy for violation of fundamental, constitutional and other legal law, freedom from arbitrary arrest, public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal on any criminal charges, right to presumption of innocence, punishment only for act that were crimes at the time.
They were committed, freedom from arbitrary, interference with privacy, family, home, reputation, correspondence, honor, right to marry, right to nationality, to own property, freedom of movement, thought, conscience, religion, freedom of opinion, expression, right to seek asylum from per sections, right to peaceful assembly and association, right to work, to take part in government, to criticize government, to pay equal pay for equal work, to social security, to form trade union, right to rest and leisure, reasonable working hour, periodic holiday with pay, right to education right to an adequate standard of living, right to freely participate in cultural life of community. The list of human right will continue in future.