For purposes of this literature search, the PubMed database that is available through the Medical Library of the National Guard Health Services was utilized.
The focus of the research was the relationship between diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and gender. For this reason, the following search terms were used: autism, gender, diagnoses. As a result of using these search terms, 9 articles were found.
The following provides a brief summary of information contained in those articles.Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder which considers as a disease from modern diseases that affected child grow and develop. Begins in childhood and persists into adulthood. Distinguished by the difficulty of communication and language, and doing behaviors repetitively.
Generally, notice these signs during the first three years of child life. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 160 children suffer from autism spectrum disorder. According to epidemiological studies conducted over the past 50 years, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders appears to be increasing at the global level.
1Autism is different in the way its affect individuals depending on the gender. Researchers of centers for diseases control and prevention showed that autism spectrum disorders are about 4.5 times more common among boys (1 in 42) than among girls (1 in 189). Bruggha’s survey of adults living in England was reported that 1.8% of male surveyed had a diagnosis of autism, compared to 0.2% of female.3 Hasn Asperger thought no females were affected by the syndrome he described in Autistic psychopathy in childhood, although clinical evidence later caused him to revise this thinking. The reasons for this difference as mentioned in Gould and Ashton-Smith research it could be in the criteria for diagnosing the autism syndrome based on behavioral characteristics as they appear more clearly in males than females, and that’s led to late diagnosis and misdiagnosis in females.
4Gould and Ashtoon-Smith in (2011) suggested that questions of diagnostics must be changed to identify some females with autism who might be missed. Because females with autism syndrome may do better at hiding their difficulties to be fit with their peers.4Another theory to explain this difference it is the environmental and social factors could also play a role in differences in ability across males, and females. This means that no direct analogy can be drawn between the poorer verbal skills of males and the higher incidence of autism to them.4Also, in a recent Swiss study, the researchers discovered a genetic explanation that the gene for autism is located on the X chromosome. When transmission of genetic traits the girls take the X chromosome of the father and mother and boys take from the mother only. So, the girls are inheriting immune gene of father that protect against autism. Wherefore, the girl is less likely to have autism.
5Lord and Schopleer in (1987) explained several conceivable mechanisms for the transmission of autism on the sex-connected X chromosome, and also for autosomal transmission. It is most probably that several genes on different chromosomes can be associated with autism.However, these are just theoretical models may not represent the full picture, and researchers are stilling trying identifying the reasons for this differences. For this reason, it will be important to doing future research in this area to develop strategies and prevention. In addition, diagnosis is the starting point for avoiding many of the difficulties they experience throughout their lives.