For rise in temperature,the sea level has increased and the situation is further exacerbated by thefact that freshwater flow in from river in the deltaic area has reduced fromonce 150 MAF to now 10-15 MAF. This situation has caused sea intrusion therebyeroding agricultural lands in addition to wetlands and settlements. The adverseimpact and loss of agriculture land was visible at the time of field visits tothe coastal villages of Golo Mandhro, Shaikh Keerio Bhandari, Haji Hajjam inBadin. According to the data from Badin district Revenue Office as quoted inthe report of LHDP on climate change effects, the cropped area has reduced from203000 ha in 2001-02 to 153000 in 2005.
The villages in two UCs of Ahmed Rajoand Bhugra Memon are worst affected where according to locals, around 51000 and38000 acres of cultivable land is respectively lost because of the effects ofsea intrusion. 3.1.2 Livestock: The rise in temperature,scarcity of fresh water, salinity in underground water, frequent flooding andcyclones have played havoc with the cultivable land, pastures, and rangelands.Frequent inundation and displacement of populations have specifically resultedin loss of livestock especially in the coastal UCs of Badin. The local populations havetraditionally possessed buffalo and cows, which indicates there was sufficientwater and fodder available in past. Coastal areas of Badin, along withneighboring Thatta district, were home to the best breeds of Kundhi buffalo, red Sindhi cows, andSakri/Khari camels.
In the last one decade as the areas saw erratic climatechanges which have frequently caused flooding, drought and constant seaintrusion thereby removing sources of grass and fodder. The successive floodsin 2010 and 2011 have only worsened the scenario for livestock rearing in thecoastal areas of Badin. However, small ruminant keeping has picked up after thesuccessive floods and destruction of rangelands. The goats, for being easilymanageable at the time of disasters, are found in almost every HH.
3.1.3 Fish CatchIn the coastalareas of Badin, fishery provides for not only food security but it provides foran important means of livelihood to local communities. According to LHDPreport, close to 500,000 find employment in this sector. Majority of these areinvolved in in-land fisheries in creeks and lakes.
Fishing communities areconcentrated in coastal villages of union councils Bhugra Memon, Ahmed Rajo,and Kadhan. More than 15,000 people in areas of these UCs purely depend onfishing as a main source of livelihood. Technically improper drainage schemesespecially LBOD and RBOD have exacerbated environmental degradation in thefishing catchments areas of Badin and neighboring Thatta. Drying up of wetlands of Badin district is ampleevidence that climate change has been affecting the livelihoods of fishingcommunity; LHDP reports almost 140, 000 people involved in fishing previously,and didn’t have fishing assets, have changed their profession to daily wagelabour in nearby towns or have migrated to cities of Karachi and Hyderabad.Before, cyclone in 1999 the prawn and crabs were found in shallow waters.According to the FGD in Haji Hajjam village, so abundant was the aquatic lifethat children would catch crabs out of entertainment and sell those in PKR 10-25 to the middlemen. Successive floods since 2003 aggravated the situation forfisheries as a number of varieties of prawns, such as jero, kidi and patas wentfar away from shallow waters.
Locals say almost all the traditional breeds ofGundan, Jarko, Dahi, and Girmino fish are no more to be found easily in theircoastal belt as a consequence of water shortage caused by climate change; whiletwo breeds of Popri and Dhogno fish have gone virtually extinct from Badincoastal areas.