For rise in temperature,
the sea level has increased and the situation is further exacerbated by the
fact that freshwater flow in from river in the deltaic area has reduced from
once 150 MAF to now 10-15 MAF. This situation has caused sea intrusion thereby
eroding agricultural lands in addition to wetlands and settlements. The adverse
impact and loss of agriculture land was visible at the time of field visits to
the coastal villages of Golo Mandhro, Shaikh Keerio Bhandari, Haji Hajjam in
Badin. According to the data from Badin district Revenue Office as quoted in
the report of LHDP on climate change effects, the cropped area has reduced from
203000 ha in 2001-02 to 153000 in 2005. The villages in two UCs of Ahmed Rajo
and Bhugra Memon are worst affected where according to locals, around 51000 and
38000 acres of cultivable land is respectively lost because of the effects of
The rise in temperature,
scarcity of fresh water, salinity in underground water, frequent flooding and
cyclones have played havoc with the cultivable land, pastures, and rangelands.
Frequent inundation and displacement of populations have specifically resulted
in loss of livestock especially in the coastal UCs of Badin.
The local populations have
traditionally possessed buffalo and cows, which indicates there was sufficient
water and fodder available in past. Coastal areas of Badin, along with
neighboring Thatta district, were home to the best breeds of Kundhi buffalo, red Sindhi cows, and
Sakri/Khari camels. In the last one decade as the areas saw erratic climate
changes which have frequently caused flooding, drought and constant sea
intrusion thereby removing sources of grass and fodder. The successive floods
in 2010 and 2011 have only worsened the scenario for livestock rearing in the
coastal areas of Badin. However, small ruminant keeping has picked up after the
successive floods and destruction of rangelands. The goats, for being easily
manageable at the time of disasters, are found in almost every HH.
3.1.3 Fish Catch
In the coastal
areas of Badin, fishery provides for not only food security but it provides for
an important means of livelihood to local communities. According to LHDP
report, close to 500,000 find employment in this sector. Majority of these are
involved in in-land fisheries in creeks and lakes. Fishing communities are
concentrated in coastal villages of union councils Bhugra Memon, Ahmed Rajo,
and Kadhan. More than 15,000 people in areas of these UCs purely depend on
fishing as a main source of livelihood. Technically improper drainage schemes
especially LBOD and RBOD have exacerbated environmental degradation in the
fishing catchments areas of Badin and neighboring Thatta.
Drying up of wetlands of Badin district is ample
evidence that climate change has been affecting the livelihoods of fishing
community; LHDP reports almost 140, 000 people involved in fishing previously,
and didn’t have fishing assets, have changed their profession to daily wage
labour in nearby towns or have migrated to cities of Karachi and Hyderabad.
Before, cyclone in 1999 the prawn and crabs were found in shallow waters.
According to the FGD in Haji Hajjam village, so abundant was the aquatic life
that children would catch crabs out of entertainment and sell those in PKR 10-
25 to the middlemen. Successive floods since 2003 aggravated the situation for
fisheries as a number of varieties of prawns, such as jero, kidi and patas went
far away from shallow waters.
Locals say almost all the traditional breeds of
Gundan, Jarko, Dahi, and Girmino fish are no more to be found easily in their
coastal belt as a consequence of water shortage caused by climate change; while
two breeds of Popri and Dhogno fish have gone virtually extinct from Badin