Filariasis is a parasitic disease that is caused by the parasitic worm which is a type of filarioidea. These are spread by blood-feeding insects like mosquitoes or flies. The life cycle is completed in two hosts, the human and the vector There are eight know clinical significant filarial nematodes which use the human as their definitive hosts. Individual infected by filarial worms may be either microfilaraemic or amicrofilaraemic in which depending weather microfilariae can be found in their peripheral blood.
It is diagnosed in microfilaraemia cases primarily through direct observation of microfilariae in the peripheral blood, while occult filariasis is diagnosed in amicrofilaraemic cases based on clinical observation and by finding a circulating antigen in the blood.The lymphatic filariasis in which these parasite worms occupy the lymphatic system including the lymph nodes and might cause chronic cases which lead to the elephantiasis disease. The lymphatic filariasis is caused by wuchereria bancrofyi, brugia malayi and brugia timori. The elephantiasis edema is where the appearance of thickening of the skin affected the area and underlying tissue. It is mainly affected the lower extremities.One of the ongoing research is the bacteria which is a genus Wolbachia in which is a symbiotic bacteria that live inside the worm and study data show that it seems to play a major role in both it controlling or inhibiting the reproduction and the development of the disease (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.
2005). The most straightforward and well know the method in prevention and control of the parasite and its disease to human are mosquito control and its course are directly by implementing the mosquito net and a proper and systemic as well as effective drainage system. This is still the main problem in any part of the developing country.
Other main methods in vector control are chemical by using the DDT and household common mosquito repellents. While the more ecology friendly method is the biological control of using the Gambusiya fish. It is an uphill challenge to totally eradicate the disease and the need for the sheer political will which is another main factor in which in most developing countries where they are the main endemic region for this disease. It is the most effective tool in cutting the lifecycle and transmission in the fight against the parasite. A study shows that the percentage of positive cases does show a significant decrease with regard to the increase of education status within the community (advance in parasitological. 1999). The fundamental implication of education in a sanitary living environment.
Inadequate sanitary measure and drainage system is the most basic problem and also the main reason in various part of the developing country has to face especially in an area which is influenced by the burden of socio-economy. And the main cause of this contributes to a high prevalence of parasitic infection. it is simply not enough just to treat the parasite infection but the need of political will are badly needed to put more momentum and show a great effort to