A few enterprising individuals with a particularly strong sense of mission, greed or real or desire for adventure led this trend.

Wherein, not only trade centres were established but even the territories were acquired by the means of wealth and technologies of the Europe. This had philosophical manifestation in the works of Kipling’s: “white man’s burden”. Seen, alien rule was consolidated through expression of administrative system. At the end of the stage there began urbanization wherein health and schooling for elite was started.

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(II) Stage of Reaction and Counteraction:

At this stage new urban centres were created and old ones were revived with modifications.

There began interaction between foreign elites and native people. Trade and commerce was enhanced. However, severe exploitation of the original inhabitants became more evident leading to national upsurge. But, as J.

C. Johari observes “local and foreign elements interacted, new forms of association developed between colonial masters and nationalist elites and new interests arose.

(III) Stage of Contradiction and Emancipation:

The growing nationalism and its widening base created elites in rural and semi-urban areas. These forces heightened the momentum of nationalist struggles. As S.

M. Lipset in her ‘The First Nation’ observes “attacks on colonial authorities combined with the demand for sharing power and the events of revolution in the west like American War of Independence of 1776 and French Revolution of 1789 became the source of inspiration”. Consequently, new methods were devised by the colonial masters to ward off the imminent crises.

Slowly democratic systems were introduced. These changes influenced political organization, mass movements and demands for greater independence.

(IV) Stage of Search for a New Generative Solution:

The gaining of independence by the erstwhile colonies led to the second revolution in the socio­economic and technological spheres.

These countries sought to use political independence as a means to promote a viable and effective community. But, very soon each type of political system generates its own problems and difficulties. While, some rely on forces at the expense of liberty, others favouring liberty trapped in elitism. Consequently, nationalist leadership loses its charismatic hold and the imported democratic system is replaced by some authoritarian model. David Apter presents a novel case for course of Modernization opted by the developing countries. However it has obvious limitations.

It does not consider the reality of third world and espouses a unidirectional model. As Eisenstadt observes “it is based on dichotomy between ‘tradition represented by native forces and modernity brought by the alien masters. It completely neglects the alternative variables (different from most) that could be genuinely incorporated in these debates. At best, it is partial approach.