Following are the advantages of cloning:
I. Cloning is said to be a life -saving mechanism. The most important organs of the human body can be cloned and kept intact so as to be used in cases of emergencies, like when the real organs stop working.
II. Cloning can help infertile human beings in producing children thus providing an easy solution to infertility.
III. Cloning technologies can prove to be extremely fruitful for producing astounding genetic researches. The composition of genes and their effects on human beings and their behavior can be well understood in a better way.
IV. A number of genetic diseases can be cured with the help of cloning; the result is you will not suffer from diabetes genetically if one or both of your parents are diabetic.
V. Scientists need a lot of plants and animals to conduct their researches; when these plants and animals are available as clones not only these plants and animals are saved but scientists can have as many species of clones as they need for the purpose of experimentation.
Cloning has a number of disadvantages too:
I. Cloning can result in creating DNA diversity between human beings. The DNA of the clone and the child may fail to match.
II. A number of undesirable traits can occur in human beings who are produced as a result of cloning. Cloning is economically, socially and politically unacceptable.
III. Malpractices in medical fraternity can also result from cloning. Clones can be trained and used in destructive ways.
IV. The natural process of birth is undermined as a result of cloning and the value and significance of human life is also underestimated.
V. It is said that a number of clones lack the ability of reprogramming the somatic nucleus of the donor in a way that it becomes a fertilized zygote.
The Food and Drug Administration of America on January 15, 2008 announced that cloned milk and meat may be present on an optimum level in the nation’s food supply.
Some people are of the opinion that people eating cloned meat have less appetite and can be weak as compared to the others. The big question is that should cloning be allowed even after knowing its disadvantages? The answer is Yes and No.
Keeping the advantages in mind, cloning is essential. Cloned food is said to possess a number of side- effects and is also restricted in the European continent. Some say that cloned meat is not harmful but even if we use common sense we can understand the difference between original and the artificial. Original is undoubtedly better. A number of religious organizations are against the concept of cloning because they are of the opinion that life begins at conception.
What is astonishing is that cloned meat is also available in the markets of a few developed countries. The U.S.A has given a green label to cloned meat. It is also estimated that in a few countries, cloned meat is available along with the actual meat and it is impossible to distinguish between them, on the basis of appearance and taste. It has also been estimated that a number of clones are born with disorders such as enlarged umbilical cords, deformities, heart and intestine problems, respiratory distress.
Large Offspring Syndrome is also found in the clones as a result of which, it might kill the clone and its mother at the same time. It is also said that clones eat less and as a result excrete less. It is true that the phosphorus, glucose, alkaline phosphate, and calcium levels are much more than the original species but the clones have to face surgeries and even oxygen intakes during birth. However, it is said that such errors in the clones can be corrected at a later stage. Cloned plants are used on a large scale to beautify the environment and the plants grown from cuttings are also clones because they are actually genetic copies of the original.
Disc cloning, video game cloning is also present in this 21st century world. It may be possible that many cloned species walk on the street along with us and we are not even aware that how many of them are actually present. Anything and everything weird is possible.
Nuclear transfer cloning techniques have been successfully performed on a number of species; Tadpole in 1952, Carp in 1963, Mice in 1986, Sheep in 1996, Rhesus Monkey in January 2000, Cattle in 2001, Cat in 2001, Rat in 2003, Dog in 2005, Horse in 2003, Water Buffalo in 2009, Camel in 2009 and Pashmina Goat in 2011. What is amazing is that Pyrenean Ibex, an extinct animal was successfully cloned in 2009.