(a) greater male involvement in family planning,
(b) greater control by women over their own reproduction,
(c) provide protection from sexually transmitted diseases and reduce power imbalance between men and women at home, community and workplace,
(d) method which can be easily reversed
(e) no interference with natural bodily and processes in the name of contraceptives.
One neglected dimension of maternal health care of women in India is non-treatment of Reproductive Tract Infection (RTI).’ If this disease are ignored and not properly attended it can have unfair consequences on women’s health.
The child survival and safe motherhood programme was implemented in 1992 which broadened the scope of family welfare programme. Besides meeting the health needs of mother and child it provides services for birth spacing and limiting. ICPP care the internal effort taken to review the working for reflection.
Indian family welfare programme is the oldest sponsored fertility reduction programme to increase representation and participation of women in representative’s bodies and ensure that the decisions on priorities and choices in development programme are made by women.
The other major instrument recommended by these working groups is the establishment of specialized agencies at different level to perform monitoring and catalytic roles as intermediaries between established government and other powerful structure and grassroots level organization.
Such intermediary agencies need to be created with adequate mandate and viability to perform the needed task or may be located within existing institutions with the specific responsibility of ensuring that women’s need and concern are adequately reflected in the designing of development plans, programme and strategies and monitoring their impact, to be able to suggest remedial action in time.
These agencies make overall responsibilities for women development but also develop professional expertise to make identify promote and assist individual women and women’s group to acquire necessary information and skill and to actively promote their support by the major development of special cadre of functionaries at different level, who will need to possess, along with other professional qualities the capacity to be sensitive to women needs and problems, the understanding of social environment within which the desired changes have to brought about and the will to promote women participatory roles, their dignity and equality.
This proposed new strategy call for affirmative action by government as well as mobilization of women through grassroots level organisation to put forth a conscious struggle for the realization of their right to participation if the economy and in decision that affect their lives, the community and future of nation, which alone can make equality truly meaningful to all categories of women.
The crucial role that research and communication system has to plan is not only identifying the reasons for failure and gap in policies and programmes but also in assisting and putting pressure on government action to improve their efficiency and effectiveness in articulation and realisation of policy goals.
Since 1978 under Director (Women Programme) in the Ministry of Rural Development, to ensure that the development programme incorporate the need of rural women. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) for the India Development Planning included a chapter on women and development.
Its main emphasized that economic independence would accelerate the improvement of the status of women. Government would endevour to give joint title to husband and wife in all the development activities revolving transfer to assets. The world conference on Agriculture reform and Rural Development Programmes in 1979.
The National Committee undertook a review and analysis of the roles and participation of women in rural development and agriculture. The review of major programme of rural development revealed the role and contribution of women were ignored in all aspects of rural economy such as production distribution.
The declaration of International year for women and this improve the status of women. The government appointed a committee on the status of women which made a comprehensive study of the problems of all women. Government programme designed for women have not been proportionate.
Women play an important role in agricultural production, animal husbandry and activities of manufacturing. The Green Revolution has led to increased demanded for casual labour, pushing out of women of such small holding to become wage earner. The seventh Plan of development programmes for national progress, creating a sense of common ownership citizenship and strengthening national integration.”
The Educational Commission recommended that the employment of women teacher should be encouraged in all the stages and all sections of education. In order to achieve this, the provisions are-
(a) Special allowances for women teachers working in rural areas,
(b) the opportunities for part-time employment on’ large scale,
(c) expansion of courses for adult women and education through courses of correspondence,
(d) residential accommodation particularly in rural areas. These increased numbers of women teachers work for development of women’s education.
As already mentioned in our Report, illiteracy remain the greatest barrier to any improvement in the position of women in employment, health, the enjoyment and exercise of legal and constitutional rights, equal opportunity in the education and generally in attaining the equality of status that our constitution has declared as the goal of the nation.
The various reports of UNESCO and UN Commission on the status of women indicate the high progress of educational status and this impact on the large mass of women. The educational commission had emphasized the imperative need to “liquidate adult literacy”.
The claims of the formal educational system which can cater to the needs of only minority for long time will have to balance against the claims of elimination of illiteracy. The constitutional directive of universal education up to age of 14 years must receive the highest priority in the formal system, the need of the large majority of adult women, an alternative system has therefore, to be formulated for this purpose to provide basic education to adult women in 15-25 age group.
The educational commission has identified amongst other forms of educational inequalities, the wide disparity of educational development between the advanced and backward classes. This educational commission has make direct impact of women education special programmes will need to be designed for their removal if equality of educational opportunities to be brought within the access of the majority of women in this country.
The imbalances just pointed at to make it difficult to put forward a set pattern of recommendations. Besides certain problems of educations and specific concern on which it is not feasible to insist upon a uniform pattern for the whole country.
This issue has been examined by the various committees and commissions In 1953, the secondary education commission has adopted and in 1959, National Committee on Women Education has recommended. The Secondary education commission suggested:
(a) girls whose parents had no objection should be free to use co-educational facilities boys school,
(b) Opening of separate schools where possible that there could be no hard opportunities for social, physical and mental development of the girls. The committee also recommended that coeducation should be adopted at primary stage and enrolment of girls was justify separate schools. For the welfare of girls and to provide adequate attention to special needs and requirement of girls, at middle and secondary stage more co-educational should be started.
These separate secondary schools for girls should be provided specially in rural areas. In 1962 committee, it has been recommended that-
(a) full freedom to parents and to management to established coeducation or separate institutions at secondary and collegiate stage,
(b) Adoption of co-education at elementary stage with a vigorous propaganda to overcome resistance to co-education and separate primary schools must be provided in case of large demand,
(c) Appointment of women teacher in educational institution at secondary and university stage.
All these committees has divergent social attitude, however, recommended that-
(a) there should be no ban on the admission of girls to boys institution,
(b) All primary and secondary level, separate schools may be provided in areas where there is great demand for them. But the effort to pursue coeducation as general policy at these stage should continue side by side,
(c) Co-education should be adopted as the general policy at primary level,
(d) Wherever separate schools and colleges are provided, it is necessary that they maintained required standard in regard to the quality of staff, provision of the facilities, relevant courses and co- curricular activities,
(e) Whenever there are mixed school, separate facilities for girls should be provided,
(f) Acceptance of the principle of mixed staff should be made condition of recognition of mixed Schools.
There is misgiving that this provision may lead to out-turn of girls from some schools. These measures may be reviewed a few years after it is implemented.
The National Committee of Women Education (1959) recommended common curriculum for boys and girls and Committee on the Differentiation of Curriculum for Boys and Girls (1964). Though complex and difficult the magnitude of the problems is not large and it can be solved by planned and the determined efforts for which recommendation are as follows-
(a) Establishment of ashrams or residential schools to serve cluster of village scattered in difficult terrains,
(b) Provision for primary schools within the walking distance from the home every child within the next 5 years,
(c) Provision for mobile schools for children of construction workers, migrant labor etc.
(d) Special incentives should be provided for areas where enrolment of girls is low,
(e) Developing of system of part time education for girls who can not attend schools on full- time basis. This system provides education to girls at the time convenient to them,
(f) Provision of incentives to prevent drop-out like poverty is one of the main cause of drop out so mid-day meal is most effective meals for them,
(g) Provision of additional space to girls in the schools so that they can bring their younger brother and sisters to look after by girls themselves or by any local women,
(h) Adoption of the multiple entry system for girls who could not attend schools earlier or had to leave before becoming literate,
(i) At least 50 per cent of teachers should be women,
(j) Provision of at least two teachers in all schools.
All these provision make greater flexibility in admission procedure and helped the girls to complete their schooling.