Axial skeleton: It is made up of the bones of head, neck and truck.
The spine forms the axis that supports outer parts of the body. Skull is at the top of the body protecting organs like brain, eyes, ears etc. The spine houses the spinal cord and consists of ‘vertebrae’ with fibrous discs between them. The ribs are attached to the thoracic vertebrae.
There are usually 12 ribs on each side of body. The upper ribs fasten in front to the sternum (breastbone). Ribs protect the heart and lungs. The five lumbar vertabrae is the ‘sacrum’. The coccyx is at the bottom of the spine. The appendicle skeleton: Made up of bones of arms and legs and their support- Shoulder girdle (pectoral) consists of scapula and clavicle (collar bone). Arm consists of ‘hamerus’ (upperarm), ‘radius and ulna’ (forearm), ‘carpals’ (wrist bones), ‘metacarpals’ (palm) and ‘phalanges’ (fingers).
Legs are attached to trunk by pelvic girdle consists of 3 bones ‘Ilium, Ischium and pubis’. The leg bones are ‘femur’ (Thigh), ‘ Tibia and fibula’ (leg), ‘ Tarsus’ (back of foot), ‘metatarsus’ and ‘phalanges’. The lower end of the femur has two curved convex surfaces called condoyle. A patella groove separates these two condyles. The patella bone is located here (Knee).
Axial skeleton (80):
Skull – cranium (08), Face (14), Hyoid (01), Ears (06), vertebral column – 26 (Thorax, sterunum, ribs).
Appendicular skeleton – (126):
Pectoral girdle – clavicle (02), scapula (02), humerus (02), radius (02), ulna (02), carpals (16), Meta carpals (10), phalanges (28). Pelvic girdle-Pelvic bone (02), Femur (02), Tibia fibula (04),Tarsal (14), metatarsals (10),phalanges (28). Joints: Many separate bones are held together at joints. All movements that change the position of body occur at joints.