Thus, pattern of urbanisation has not its direct impact on reduction of poverty. Whereas unplanned growth of urbanisation definition has posed that on infrastructure and increased pollution. (Definition of an urban area: Places must be under Municipal Corporation, cantonment Board, notified town area authority, a minimum population of 5000, and minimum 75% of population must be engaged in non-agricultural activities and population density should be 4,000 per sq.
km.) The quality of population will be hampered if there is rapid increase in population. The literacy rate would be much poor. According to 2001 census the population in India was 1027.0 but out of which total literacy rate is only 65.
4% out of which literacy rate of 75.8 percent for male and 52.1 percent for female. For some states literacy rate among female population is precariously low such as in Rajasthan 6.4%, M.P.
10.8%, and Bihar 11.8% UP 11 percent. This indicates society has not changed the attitude towards woman population who are socially deprived. Woman population is not encouraged to go to school particularly in rural areas (literacy rate among rural population is 21 percent). Retention rate of female population is 16 percent from class I to VIII.
There is high dropout for female (41 percent at primary and 58 percent in upper primary level) and drop out of male population is not very low (Total drop out is around 40 percent). Empirical evidences suggest that there is positive existence between the people below poverty line and proportion of illiterate population and negative correlation between female literacy and birth rate. The pace of economic development can be made faster or strengthened which contribute significantly to economic growth, and through quality of education.
Education generates awareness, specific skill formation which fosters further growth and development. World Bank had also commented “Developing countries with huge literacy rates have tended to grow faster, even after allowances are made differences in incomes and physical investment, and they have had higher physical investment rates”.Thus, improvement in literacy contributes significantly for development. The female literacy, level is positively correlated with modern new age jobs, age at marriage and contraceptive use. It also reduces infant mortabilty and fertility. Unfortunately, a low level of female literacy rate has not been able to develop the situation to the desired possible level in India.
A very pertinent question in this regard can be raised. Women want smaller families if there are five positive common features—education, economic status, sound health, urbanisation and a higher status in the society. Among these five features status of woman in the society is unique aspect. Even in those countries where status of woman is high they experience lower fertility rate, whereas countries like Bangladesh, Napal and some parts of India woman’s status is crucial. If they have adequate right to self determination, capacity to decide their own fate, that would surely bring some big headway in the use of family planning methods.
A World Bank study indicates that schooling of girl children tends to delay age of marriage and if average age of marriage can be raised by three to four years that may help to reduce birth rate by 25 percent. Education helps to secure employment; educated parents become education conscious and tries to give their children quality education to rear them as good citizens of the country. The parents will be more caring about the health of the children. Thus in order to bring a decline in the population, we have to make our people more conscious and bring more awareness among our female population.
We have to increase the woman empowerment and have to pay special attention to upgrade the woman’s status. The real contraceptive lies in the developing of woman’s status in the society.