The NPSA identifies patient safety deficiencies, develops solutions and monitors the results after corrections. The initiatives include promotion of hand hygiene, information for doctors and patients on steps to reduce risk of error, vaccine safety and disclosure of error to injured patients. The National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) also encourage anonymous reporting by NHS employees.

2. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), UK:

The institute is an independent organization with three centres of excellence that is involved in patient safety activities. Its Centre for Health Technology Evaluation recommends medicines and evaluates the safety and efficacy of procedures.

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The Centre for Clinical Practice develops evidence-based clinical guidelines for clinicians. In collaboration with the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) it is also engaged in risk assessment of new technology, monitoring the safety incidents associated with procedures and offering solutions to prevent adverse outcomes. They also share reporting in confidential enquiries in areas such as maternal or infant deaths, childhood deaths up to age 16, deaths in persons with mental illness, peri-operative deaths and unexpected medical deaths. The centre for Public Health Excellence develops and issues public health guidelines for information of patients and public.

3. Legal Protection for Whistle Blowers:

In the United Kingdom, whistle blowing is well recognized and is government sanctioned, as a way to protect patients, by encouraging employees to call attention to deficient services. Health authorities are encouraged to put local policies in place to protect whistle blowers.


Independent NGO Initiatives:

The prominent initiatives include the Health Foundation, London and the Lancaster Patient Safety Research Unit. The Health Foundation is an independent charity that aims to improve the quality of health care for the people of the United Kingdom. The Safer Patients Initiative, one of the foundation’s quality and performance improvement programs, targets reducing medication-related adverse events and errors, reducing infections associated with intensive care or surgery and provides expertise in measuring improvement. Lancaster Patient Safety Research Unit, funded by the NHS, was founded in 2008 with twin aims of conducting world-class, high-quality research in patient safety and ensuring that the unit’s findings are used in practice, to improve the welfare of people.