The non-nuclear states suggested that the nuclear powers should announce scaling down their stockpiles. The USA insisted that first efforts should be made to prevent N. Korea and Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons.
To placate non-weapons states that sought to pressure nuclear powers into moving more quickly on arms control, a list of disarmament goals was attached to the extension decision. Those objectives, which include completion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) by 1996, were paired up with a plan for annual meetings to review progress toward the goals.
India did not join the treaty protesting against its discriminatory nature. Pakistan insisted that it would do so only if New Delhi signed the document. Israel said it could consider signing the NPT only two years after it signed peace treaties with all its West Asian neighbours.
After the indefinite extension of NPT, the US stepped up its efforts to cap the nuclear weapons capabilities of the threshold states India, Pakistan and Israel by proposing a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These efforts culminated in success in September 96.
Pressure was building on different nuclear powers of the world to totally renounce the explosion and testing of nuclear weapons. The French were specially being targeted for their explosions in South Pacific Ocean.
The Greenpeace movement in Australia was in the forefront of these protests. Frequently, to thwart the French nuclear explosions, a ship ‘Rainbow Warrior’ would sail too close to the site of the nuclear explosion.
The ship visited the west coast ports of India in late 03. These tactics, however, failed to deter France from exploding nuclear weapons. The Chinese were also keen to develop and update their nuclear arsenal. In this pursuit, they conducted a number of nuclear tests.
The United States has developed the technique of laboratory simulated explosions, thereby eliminating the need of nuclear tests. The nuclear powers were keen to ban the testing of all nuclear weapons, and they were keen to agree to a treaty which could impose a total ban on the testing of these dreadful weapons.