Epidemiology:

Breast
cancer is termed as global burden due to its high incidence and mortality rate
with an estimation of 1.38 million new breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2008
which is 23% of all cancers and thereby it ranks second most occurring cancer overall
(10.9% of all cancers.) (Ferlay et al. 2008). It has global footprint in almost
every country. So it is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor usually
confined to developed countries. But it shows significant differences in the
patterns of incidence and mortality rate from region to region. Initially it
was occurring at lowest rate in less-developed countries and greatest in the
more-developed countries.
Statistics supported the fact that about 55% of this global burden is currently
experienced in developed countries, but incidence rates are rapidly rising in
developing countries (Ferlay et al. 2008). Europe, northern America,
Australia, New Zealand are the highest incidence regions with remarkable number
of cases reported in Uruguay and Argentina. On the other hand, incidence rate
is relatively low throughout Africa, Asia, central and South America (Bray et al. 2002).
Interestingly, in Asia the rate of breast cancer incidence in many times lower
than other regions. 45-50 years old women are the potential target of breast
cancer in Asia (Stanley P. L. Leong, 2010). The following graphical
representation also confirms about the low incidence and mortality rate in Asia
and Africa region (Torre et al. 2015).

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fig: incidence and mortality of
breast cancer around the globe (Torre et al. 2015)

 

According
to GLOBOCAN estimation of 2012, Bangladeshi women attributed 23.9% in incidence
cases of breast cancer and 16.9% in mortality cases.

(http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx)

Parkin 2001; Parkin et al. 2005; Jemal et al.
2011 and Torre et al. 2015 respectively have gathered and organized global
cancer statistical data of different regions of the world. These sequential
works help to predict about cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence for
those respective years in a comparative manner among different regions of the
world. All that information was collected according to the estimation produced
by GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Global
cancer statistics of 2000, 2002, 2008 and 2012. Based on this, the following
table is presented to show breast cancer severity over the past few years.

 

Table: review of annual incidence and mortality
case of breast cancer compared to all cancers based on GLOBOCAN estimations.

Year

Total
cancer incidence

Breast
cancer incidence

Total
mortality case for cancer

Mortality
case for breast cancer

2000

4,700,000

1,050,000

2,700,000

370,000

2002

5,060,657

1,151,298

2,927,896

410,712

2008

6,038,400

1,383,500

3,345,800

458,400

2012

6,663,000

1,676,600

3,548,200

521,900

From
this table we can come to the conclusion that breast cancer attributes to
almost 25% of all cancer incidence and 15% of all cancer mortality. Though medical
science and treatment facilities have advanced rapidly during the current years
but yet the incidence rate and mortality rate of breast cancer tend to increase
like before.

In 2003, Relatively low use pattern of
Hormone Replacement Therapy was observed in United states. Statistical data
supported that use of Hormone Replacement Therapy decreased by approximately
38% (Buist et al. 2004). As a result, it was believed
as a reason of sharp decline up to 6.7% in breast cancer incidence in United
States.

The following bar represents change of
breast cancer incidence and mortality over the years.

 

 

fig: Trend of change in cancer incidence and
mortality over the year

The
figure clearly shows that both the incidence and mortality for all kinds of
cancers as well as breast cancer is increasing despite the development of
medical sciences and treatment facilities being available for cancer.

 

In
order to assess the change pattern of breast cancer incidence we can consider
the following line diagram. It shows the percent incidence for breast cancer
and percent mortality for breast cancer by blue and orange line respectively.
From this data we can deduce that there is a sharp increase in breast cancer
incidence between 2008 to 2012. On the other hand, mortality due to breast
cancer decreased slightly between 2002 to 2008. Then again it increases
dramatically.

 

fig: change of percent incidence and mortality due to breast
cancer over the year.

 

World breast cancer
ranking: (http://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/cause-of-death/breast-cancer/by-country/; december 10, 2017).

Rank

Country

Percentage
of death

1

Armenia

39.96

2

Fiji

31.38

3

Serbia

28.30

7

Pakistan

26.76

8

Uruguay

26.76

110

India

13.65

125

Bangladesh

11.47

 

Based
on 2014 database, Bangladesh ranked 116 with percentage of death 14.7 which
means percentage of death due to breast cancer has decreased in a significant amount.
According to GLOBOCAN estimation of 2012, Bangladeshi women attributed 23.9% in
incidence cases of breast cancer and 16.9% in mortality cases

(http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx)

 

 

 

 

Ref:

Parkin
DM. Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. The lancet oncology. 2001 Sep
30;2(9):533-43.

Parkin
DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA: a cancer
journal for clinicians. 2005 Mar 1;55(2):74-108.

Jemal
A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA:
a cancer journal for clinicians. 2011 Mar 1;61(2):69-90.

 

Ferlay,
J., Shin, H.R., Bray, F., Forman, D., Mathers, C. and Parkin, D.M., 2010.
Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. International
journal of cancer, 127(12), pp.2893-2917.

 

Bray
F, Sankila R, Ferlay J, Parkin DM: Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality
in Europe in 1995. Eur J Cancer 2002, 38: 99-166.

 

Buist
DSM, Newton KM, Miglioretti DL, et al. Hormone therapy prescribing patterns in
the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:1042-1050

 

Ravdin,
P.M., Cronin, K.A., Howlader, N., Berg, C.D., Chlebowski, R.T., Feuer, E.J.,
Edwards, B.K. and Berry, D.A., 2007. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in
2003 in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(16),
pp.1670-1674.

 

Stanley P. L.
Leong • Zhen-Zhou Shen • Tse-Jia Liu • Gaurav Agarwal • Tomoo Tajima • Nam-Sun
Paik • Kerstin Sandelin • Anna Derossis • Hiram Cody • William D. Foulkes. Is Breast Cancer the Same Disease in Asian
and Western Countries? World J
Surg (2010) 34:2308–2324 DOI 10.1007/s00268-010-0683-1

 

Torre
LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet?Tieulent
J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA: a cancer journal for
clinicians. 2015 Mar 1;65(2):87-108.

 

(http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx); last accessed on 12 december,2017.