Epidemiology:Breastcancer is termed as global burden due to its high incidence and mortality ratewith an estimation of 1.38 million new breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2008which is 23% of all cancers and thereby it ranks second most occurring cancer overall(10.9% of all cancers.) (Ferlay et al. 2008). It has global footprint in almostevery country. So it is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor usuallyconfined to developed countries.
But it shows significant differences in thepatterns of incidence and mortality rate from region to region. Initially itwas occurring at lowest rate in less-developed countries and greatest in themore-developed countries.Statistics supported the fact that about 55% of this global burden is currentlyexperienced in developed countries, but incidence rates are rapidly rising indeveloping countries (Ferlay et al. 2008). Europe, northern America,Australia, New Zealand are the highest incidence regions with remarkable numberof cases reported in Uruguay and Argentina.
On the other hand, incidence rateis relatively low throughout Africa, Asia, central and South America (Bray et al. 2002).Interestingly, in Asia the rate of breast cancer incidence in many times lowerthan other regions.
45-50 years old women are the potential target of breastcancer in Asia (Stanley P. L. Leong, 2010). The following graphicalrepresentation also confirms about the low incidence and mortality rate in Asiaand Africa region (Torre et al. 2015).fig: incidence and mortality ofbreast cancer around the globe (Torre et al. 2015) Accordingto GLOBOCAN estimation of 2012, Bangladeshi women attributed 23.
9% in incidencecases of breast cancer and 16.9% in mortality cases.(http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx)Parkin 2001; Parkin et al. 2005; Jemal et al.2011 and Torre et al.
2015 respectively have gathered and organized globalcancer statistical data of different regions of the world. These sequentialworks help to predict about cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence forthose respective years in a comparative manner among different regions of theworld. All that information was collected according to the estimation producedby GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Globalcancer statistics of 2000, 2002, 2008 and 2012. Based on this, the followingtable is presented to show breast cancer severity over the past few years. Table: review of annual incidence and mortalitycase of breast cancer compared to all cancers based on GLOBOCAN estimations.
Year Total cancer incidence Breast cancer incidence Total mortality case for cancer Mortality case for breast cancer 2000 4,700,000 1,050,000 2,700,000 370,000 2002 5,060,657 1,151,298 2,927,896 410,712 2008 6,038,400 1,383,500 3,345,800 458,400 2012 6,663,000 1,676,600 3,548,200 521,900 Fromthis table we can come to the conclusion that breast cancer attributes toalmost 25% of all cancer incidence and 15% of all cancer mortality. Though medicalscience and treatment facilities have advanced rapidly during the current yearsbut yet the incidence rate and mortality rate of breast cancer tend to increaselike before. In 2003, Relatively low use pattern ofHormone Replacement Therapy was observed in United states. Statistical datasupported that use of Hormone Replacement Therapy decreased by approximately38% (Buist et al. 2004). As a result, it was believedas a reason of sharp decline up to 6.7% in breast cancer incidence in UnitedStates.
The following bar represents change ofbreast cancer incidence and mortality over the years. fig: Trend of change in cancer incidence andmortality over the yearThefigure clearly shows that both the incidence and mortality for all kinds ofcancers as well as breast cancer is increasing despite the development ofmedical sciences and treatment facilities being available for cancer. Inorder to assess the change pattern of breast cancer incidence we can considerthe following line diagram. It shows the percent incidence for breast cancerand percent mortality for breast cancer by blue and orange line respectively.From this data we can deduce that there is a sharp increase in breast cancerincidence between 2008 to 2012.
On the other hand, mortality due to breastcancer decreased slightly between 2002 to 2008. Then again it increasesdramatically. fig: change of percent incidence and mortality due to breastcancer over the year. World breast cancerranking: (http://www.
worldlifeexpectancy.com/cause-of-death/breast-cancer/by-country/; december 10, 2017). Rank Country Percentage of death 1 Armenia 39.96 2 Fiji 31.38 3 Serbia 28.
30 7 Pakistan 26.76 8 Uruguay 26.76 110 India 13.65 125 Bangladesh 11.
47 Basedon 2014 database, Bangladesh ranked 116 with percentage of death 14.7 whichmeans percentage of death due to breast cancer has decreased in a significant amount.According to GLOBOCAN estimation of 2012, Bangladeshi women attributed 23.9% inincidence cases of breast cancer and 16.9% in mortality cases(http://globocan.
iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx) Ref:ParkinDM. Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. The lancet oncology. 2001 Sep30;2(9):533-43.ParkinDM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P.
Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA: a cancerjournal for clinicians. 2005 Mar 1;55(2):74-108.JemalA, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D.
Global cancer statistics. CA:a cancer journal for clinicians. 2011 Mar 1;61(2):69-90.
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, Mathers, C. and Parkin, D.M., 2010.Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Internationaljournal of cancer, 127(12), pp.2893-2917. BrayF, Sankila R, Ferlay J, Parkin DM: Estimates of cancer incidence and mortalityin Europe in 1995.
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